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lal 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF.CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



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SKETCH OF MADEIRA. 



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LONDON : 
GEOBGS WOODFALL AND SOW, 

ANGKL COURT, BKINNKR 8TR8BT. 



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© 
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From a Sketch by Lady Susan Vernon Harcourt. 

LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STRElh'. 

1851. 



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A SKETCH 



MADEIRA; 



CONTAIKINO 



INTORMATION FOB THE TBAl/lLLEB, OB INVALID VISITOR 



By EDWAItD VERNON HABCOUBT, Esq. 



'* Oh ! had we lome bright little isle of our own. 
In a blue tummer ocean, for off and alone. 
Where a leaf never dies in the still-bloominigr bowers. 
And the bee banquets on through a whole y^ of flowers ; 

Where the tun loves to pause 

With so fond a delay. 

That night only draws 

A thin veil o'er the day ; 
Where simply to fed that we breathe, that we live. 
Is worth the best joy that life elsewhere can give. 



Our life should resemble a long day of light. 

And our death come on holy and calm as tlie night.*' 

Moore. 



WITH MAPS AND VIEWS. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1851. 



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HABRIET COUNTESS OF SHEFFIELD, 

THIS MEMORIAL 

OF THE BEAUTIFUL ISLAND VISITED BT HER IN 1848, 
IS INSOBIBBD BT 

HER APPECTIONATE SON-IN-LAW. 



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T)P7oz. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In presenting to the public the following pages, the com- 
pilation of which has afforded me amusement during many 
leisure hours, I am encouraged to hope they may be accept- 
able, rather from the general lack of ayailable information 
concerning an island becoming daily of more importance as 
a place of sanatory resort, than from any merit of their own. 

In rendering my best thanks to the friends who have given 
me their assistance, I would more especially acknowledge 
the valuable help I have received from Henry Temple, Esq., 
of Madeira. 

To my father, who has famished me with a geological 
account of the island, as well as with a notice of its ancient 
history, I am much indebted. 

My thanks are also due to W. Yarrell, Esq., for his kind- 
ness in enabling me to compare the birds of Madeira with 
English specimens. 

The Civil Governor of Madeira, His Excellency S"' Jose 
Silvestre lUbeiro, has, in a most obliging manner, afforded me 



M309575 °--'^°°8'^ 



VIU INTRODUCTION. 

authentic statistical information. To him Funchal owes its 
Asjlo de Mendicidade, the lighting of the principal streets of 
the town, the bridge in the Ribeiro Secco, the new road along 
the searcoast to the westward, the extension of schools over 
the island, as well as many other benevolent and useful 
works. His activity in suggesting and carrying out measures 
for the relief of the sufferers during the dearth of 1847 was 
beyond praise. He has also greatly promoted the industry of 
the inhabitants by establishing exhibitions of the fabrics and 
manufactures of the island, and instituting an annual fair in 
Funchal. 

Should these pages prove useful to any that are intending 
to visit Madeira, or are otherwise interested in it, the object 
of their publication will be accomplished. 

E. V. H. 
London, 1851. 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

A DESCRIPTION OP MADEIRA. 

Page 
Approach to Madeira. — Mount Church. — Visit Boat. — Beach. — FonchaL 
— Prazai. — Buildings. — Turrets. — Scenery. — Daguerreotype. — 
Conyeyances. — Burroqueros. — Bides. — Picnics. — The Bstreito. — 
Jardim — Ourral das Freiras. — Pico Grande. — Short Boad to the Cur- 
lal. — Expedition to Gape Gir4o. — Camera de Lobos. — Campanario. — 
Expedition to Machico. — Sancta Cruz. — Machico. — Portella. — Serra 
de Santo Antonio. — Camacha. — Palheiro. — Afternoon Bides.— Boat- 
ing Excursions. — Expedition to S^Yincente. — Baha^al. — Calheta. 
— Expedition to Santa Anna. — Boa Ventura. — Bntroza Pass. — S^ 
Jorge. — Santa Anna. — Pico Buivo. — Vista of Faial — Metade Valley. 
— Bibeiro Frio.-.*Iiamuceiras. — Summary . . , . . 1 

CHAPTER II. 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

Passports. — Means of Conyeyance. — Lodgings. — Seryants. — Money. — 
Proyisions. — Markets. — Clothing. — Horses. — Boats. — Oxen. — Bri- 
tish Places of Worship. — English Burial Ghrounds. — Shroye Tuesday. 
— Public Amusements. — Parties 25 

CHAPTER III. 

ON THE CLIMATE AND VITAL STATISTICS OP MADEIRA. 

Climate. — Tables of Temperature — of Bain. — Deluges. — Bainy Season. 
— L'Bste. — Clouds. — Sunset. — Snow. — Dampness. — Summer. — Lon- 
geyity. — Population. — Emigration 37 

CHAPTER IV. 

ON THE HISTORY, GOVERNMENT, AND MANNERS OF MADEIRA. 
Ancient History. — Be-discoyery of Madeira. — Cape Bojador. — Colum- 
bus. — History of Machim. — Qoyemors appointed. — Allotment of 



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X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Land. — Original (Joyernineiit — Death of Zarco. — Funchal conititated 
a City. — InTation by French Privateen. — Madeira passes into the 
Dominion of Spain. — Bnglkh Possession. — Dom Miguel. — Ecclesias- 
tical AflUrs. — Bishop appointed. — Ecclesiastical Coorts. — Salary of 
the Clergy. — Diocese of Funchal. — Monastic Establishments. — Re- 
ligious Societies. — Places of Education. — Public Institutions. — Ju- 
dicial Division of Madeira. — Civil Governor. — Judges. — Criminals. — 
Laws of Inheritance. — Public £eve&ues.^>.Gt>vemment Monopolies. 
— Military Affiurs. — Roads. — Elections. — Habitations of the Poor. 
— Dreii. — Beauty. — ManufiMtures 57 

CHAPTER V. 

ON THE AORICULTUBE OP MADEIRA. 

Introduction of the Vine and Sugar-Cane. — Clearing the Forests. — Culti- 
vation of the SugarOane.— Cultivation of the Vine. — Different Soils. 
—Best Wine Distriots.— Kinds of Wines.— Manufacture of Wine.— 
Cultivation of Com. — Manure. — Threshing. — Qrinding Com.— 
Maise.— Flax.— - Potatoes.^ Yams.— Weeds. — Pine-Trees. — Sheep. 
— Cows. — Instruments of Husbandry. — Levadas. — Dearths. — La- 
bouring Classes. — Wages. — Relation between Landlord and Tenant . 93 

CHAPTER VI. 

ON THE NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OP MADEIRA. 

Fire on the South of the Isknd. — Forests on the North Side. — Dragon 
Tree. — Urae. — Palm-Trees. — Opuntia. — Froits and Vegetables.— 
Flowers. — Pbints peculiar to Madeira.— Birds. — Reptiles. — Insects. 
— Fishes. — Turtles. — Corals. — Medusae. — Luminosity of the Ocean. 
— Oeology Ill 

APPENDIX. 

I. Sir Hans Sloane's List of Plants.— List of cultivated PlanU 

growing in the Ghurdens of the Pakneira and the Deanery . 187 

II. List of Birds that breed in Madeira.— List of Stragglers in Madeira 165 

III. Tables of Navigation 168 



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LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 



View of Funohal from the Sea Frontispiece. 

View from Hollwai's Cottage ........ To face p. 24 

Group of Peasants 56 

Bahanas 110 

English Burial-Ground 186 

Map of Madeira End of Tolume. 

Map of Funohal and its Enyibons End of text. 



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SKETCH OF MADEIRA. 



CHAPTER I. 

A DESCRIPTION OF MADEIRA. 

** The wanderer's eye could barely view 
The summer heaven's delicious blue; 
So wondrous wild, the whole might teem 
The scenery of a fairy dream/' 

WixTBB Scott. 

Approach to Madeira. — Mount Ohurcb. — Yisit boat — Beacb. — Fancbal. — 
Prazas.— Buildings. — Turrets. — Scenery. — Daguerreotype. — Conyey- 
ances. — Burroqueros. — Bides. — Pic-nics. — The Estreito. — Jardim.' — 
Curral das Freiras. — Pico Grande. — Short road to the Onrral. — Expe- 
dition to Gape GKrao. — Camera de Lobos. — Campanario. — Expedition to 
Macbico. — Sancta Cruz.— Macbico. — Portella. — Serra de Santo Antonio. 
— Camacha. — Palbeiro. — Afternoon rides. — Boating excursions. — Expe- 
dition to Sao Vincente. — Rabaqal.— Calheta. — Expedition to Santa Anna. 
— Boa Ventura. — Entroza Pass. — S?o Jorge. — Santa Anna. — Pico Buivo. 
— Vista of Faial. — Metade Valley. — Bibeiro Frio. — Lamuceuns. — 
Summary. 

Madeira is situated between the thirty-second and thirty- 
third parallels of north latitude, and between the sixteenth 
and eighteenth meridians of west longitude ; its extreme 
length is about thirty-three miles, and its greatest breadth 
about fourteen. 

APPROACH TO MADEIRA. 

Perhaps no spot on earth is first seen with emotions more 
various than this island, according to the different conditions 
of feeling under which it is approached. To one, its glowing 

B 



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2 MOTTNT GHT7BGH. — ^ANCHORAGE. [chap. i. 

hills and genial air seem to promise prolonged life and re- 
stored health ; to another, the colours of hope haye faded 
from a mind filled with thoughts of the many, cut off in their 
prime, that already rest within the bosom of those iron rocks ; 
but to persons who view this favoured land without any such 
peculiar associations either to cheer or sadden the scene, it 
presents, simply as an object to the sight and senses, a land- 
scape of surpassing beauty. 

MOUNT OHTJBCH. 

One of the most conspicuous objects on your first approach- 
ing Madeira is the church of Nossa Senhora do Monte, the 
Lady of the Mount. This church serves as a land-mark to 
the heretic sailor, and is far more dear to the Roman Catholic 
for other reasons. As he approaches he sees the church of 
the saint who has protected him across the angry wave; as he 
departs he looks to the mount, and offers a vow to the Lady 
in whose help he trusts during his perilous voyage *. 

ANCHORAGE. 

The anchorage is not good, and woe betide you if the sea 
comes swelling in from the south when you are in the roads. 
This sometimes happens without any wind, and you have the 
extraordinary phenomenon of shipwrecks in a calm, from the 
mere swell and roll of the Atlantic. 

* Offerings are frequently made to our Lady before a voyage; the inha- 
bitants relate a miracle that was performed by this Saint when the island was 
once threatened with fiimine. A pilgrimage was made to the mount by the 
principal inhabitants to propitiate Nossa Senhora, and in the morning a ves- 
sel laden with com arrived from Lisbon. On examination, the clothes of 
the Saint proved to be saturated with sea-water. The sailors also related that 
during a calm a white figure had risen from the ocean and dragged them into 
tb«bay! 



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CHAP. I.] VISIT BOAT. — ^BEACH. — FUNCHAL. 8 

On the 31st of December, 1848, I saw four vessels come 
on shore one after the other, and Her Miyesty's corvette 
Daphne had a narrow escape. The wind was blowing dead 
into the bay at this time. One ship, finding she had no 
chance of holding her ground, set all her canvas, and ran 
herself high and dry upon the beach. Every vessel was a 
wreck a very short time after she touched the shore, yet but 
two lives were lost. The Loo Eock gun fired as each fresh 
ship was driven from her anchorage. A large barque broke 
away ; again the gun fired, and as she gradually neared the 
strand, in spite of all her efforts, her fate seemed sealed, 
when suddenly the wind veered round a point to the west, 
and she sailed out amid the shouts of rejoicing of hundreds 
of spectators on the beach. 

VISIT BOAT. 

As soon as the visit boat returns from you, if it goes with 
flag unfurled, the sign that you are admitted to p-atigue^ the 
vessel is surrounded by innumerable boats, painted green, 
white, blue, and yellow, and manned by mahogany-coloured 
boatmen, jabbering very inharmonious Portuguese, one louder 
than the other. 

The beach is perhaps a mile from the anchorage. When 
you think you have but two strokes more to pull before you 
jump on shore, the boat is suddenly twisted round stem first, 
the men tuck up their trousers, jump into the water, and,, 
waiting for a wave, run you up high and dry on the beach. 

FUNCHAL. 

The principal town in Madeira is Funchal. The name 
means, in Portuguese, a place set with fennel, and it is said 
to have been so called on account of the quantity of that 

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4 PBAZAS.— BUILDINGS. [Ohap. x. 

herb found growing there at the time of the discovery of the 
island. It is seen to much advantage from the sea, so white 
and bright, with its suburbs of Quintas and their groves of 
orange and coffee spread fax and wide up the hills, fifteen 
hundred feet above it 

In your first walk into the town you are struck by the 
clean fresh look of everything about you. This cleanness 
is owing, partly to the entire absence of dust, and partly to 
the constant supply of running water, which is conducted in 
covered gutters through every street'*'. The streets are well 
paved with plates of whinstone, set edgewise ; their narrow- 
ness shelters them from the sun without excluding the air. 

PBAZAS. 

The Prazas, which answer to the Spanish Alamedas and 
French Boulevards, are planted with planes and oak trees ; 
they afford a grateful shade for those whose health debars 
them from taking much exercise, and yet are benefited by 
breathing sea-air. 

BUILDINGS. 

In a country without brick, and having but little command 
of freestone, no great excellence of architecture can be ex- 
pected. The Cathedral, which is capable of holding about 
two thousand four hundred persons, is a mixture of indefinite 
styles ; nor are any of the other ecclesiastical buildings more 
to be commended. The court-houses, custom-houses, and 
prisons, are on a small scale. 

In the market-place, as in the East, there are men always 
standing to be hired. At night a solemn stillness reigns in 

* There is, moreoyer, a police regulation which compels householders to 
sweep dean the space in front of their premises every Saturday. 



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1 



CHAP. 1.] TURBETS. — 8CENEBY. 6 

the Streets, save where palanquin-bearers convey the reveller 
to or from some party, or the glare of the flambeau precedes 
pedestrians bound on a similar enund. The town is par- 
tially lighted with oil, when there is no moon* 

Almost every house is possessed of a turret, from which 
a view is obtained over the town and harbour. This look- 
out place is of use to the merchant, by enabling him early 
to discern from it the approach of his vessels, which he 
recognises by his private signals. In the town the ground- 
floor of the merchants* houses is always occupied by wine, 
and you have to ascend to reach the inhabited parts. There 
is a great passion for building in Funchal ; as soon as a man 
has accumulated a little money he frequently engages in 
erecting a house, and finds himself obliged to borrow at an 
exorbitant rate to complete what he has begun. One cause of 
this, is the difficulty of investing money satisfactorily, where 
there is no confidence in public securities. Amongst the 
lower classes, gold ornaments and sometimes precious stones 
are a &vourite kind of investment. These are sold as 
their wants call for the money, and bought again when 
they have anything to spare. 

SCENEBT. 

No artist's pencil has ever done full justice to the scenery 
of Madeira ; what, then, can be expected from a bare descrip- 
tion? There is an aerial magic in it which you must go thither 
duly to appreciate. The various colours of the soil, with 
mingled hues — black, yellow, red, and white — the vivid ver- 
dure, and the everchanging shadows of the sky, give a warmth 
of tint, and a diversity of efiFect, which is characteristic and 
striking. Here is not the unintermitting blaze and eternal 



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6 8KET0HIKG. — ^DAGUBBBBOTTPB. [chap. i. 

blueness of a tropical, nor the cold haze of a northern atmo- 
sphere, but the sunshine is broken and mellowed hj flitting 
clouds, and a series of dissolving lights and shades surrounds 
you on every side, which must awaken pleasure and admi- 
ration in the breast of the most insensible. 

SKBTCHINO*. 

The great difficulty of sketching in Madeira consists in the 
grandeur of the sceneiy and the quickness with which the 
lights disappear. In the ravines about the town there are 
many exquisite little pieces to be found. There is an endless 
fund of amusement for the lover of the pencil ; sit down 
where you will, you get a good subject, as far as rocks, water, 
and sky are concerned. Fine trees are a great desideratum to 
the artist on the south side of the island ; on the north he 
has them to his heart's content. The production of drawing 
utensils always excites curiosity amongst the natives. The 
artist is immediately surrounded by a motley group of people, 
who seem as if they had nothing to do but watch his motions. 
There they will stay for hours. It is true, they inflict no 
greater inconvenience than belongs to the propinquity of a 
mass of unwashen humanity, imless you quarrel with them. 

DAGUEBBEOTTPB. 

It might have been supposed that, in an atmosphere so pre- 
eminently clear, the Talbotype and Daguerreotype would have 
been peculiarly successful. This does not, however, appear 
to be the case. I am told that the chemical re-agents em- 
ployed here in these arts have the usual amount of sensi- 

* An enormous duty is imposed at the Custom-house on drawings, which 
pay at the rate of 6s, Sd. per pound of their weight 1 



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CHAP. I.J CONVEYANCES. 7 

bilitjr, and no more. As the effect of the solar ray is known 
to differ at different times of the day, it may probably differ 
also in the various atmospheres of different climates, and may 
not always be in proportion to their clearness. 

CONVEYANCES. 

The scenery of the island is best seen on foot or on horse- 
back. The use of carriages is impracticable, owing to the 
steepness of the roads. An English gentleman has lately 
had a sledge carriage constructed, capable of containing four 
people, and drawn by a pair of oxen. It is a very good con- 
veyance for the town, where the streets are smoothly paved, 
but it would not answer in the rough roads of the country. 
For the delicate or the lazy another mode of travelling in the 
mountains is in a hammock, ride, as the natives call it. This 
consists of a net of fine texture, slung to a single pole, which 
is carried on men's shoulders. A good supply of cushions 
makes it a luxurious conveyance. Nearly as good a view of 
the scenery is obtained from the hammock as you have on 
horseback. For a long journey each hammock has its relay 
of bearers, who go at an amazing pace. These conveyances are 
seldom seen in the town, excepting when used by invalids, who 
find them easier than palanquins. The palanquins, which are 
the usual town vehicles, are likewise suspended from a single 
pole, and carried by two men. They are more commodious 
for general use than hammocks, as admitting of an upright pes- 
ture; but the framework being made of iron, they are heavy to 
carry, and ill adapted for long distances. A hammock enables 
the invalid with«(]at fiatigue to take a share in those pic-nic ex- 
cursions, Mendly to health, to which the beautiful climate 
and country invite, and which are the fiavourite social recrea- 
tion of visitors to Madeira. 



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8 BUBBOQUEROS. — ^RIDXS. [oxap. X. 

BUBB0QUEB08. 

The person who gets up one of these parties sends round 
invitations to his friends to join him on a certain day to ride 
to a given point. A rendezvous is assigned, at which the 
riders assemhle, each followed by his faithful burroquero. 
The burroqueros are a fine set of fellows, whose duty it is to 
look after you and your horse, to cany the coats you take to 
fortify yourself against the mountain mists, an umbrella to 
shield you from the sun, a rdbo, as they call it, or cow's tail 
fjostened on to the end of a stick, to brush the venomous flies 
off your horse, shoes and nails for the same animal in case 
he should require them : add to all this a basket containing 
a cold chicken, sandwiches, fruit, pies, liquors, as the case 
may be, and it is wonderful the poor fellows get on at all ; 
but if you are told that not only do they go the whole nine 
hours, more or less, without complaining, but often keep 
pace with you on the worst of roads, or rather tracks, at a good 
round gallop, holding on by your horse's tail as you fly up the 
most precipitous hills, you may be disposed to disbelief. So 
it is, however, and you could no more persuade one of them 
to stay behind, go home, or forsake his charge, than you could 
separate a shepherd from his flock. 

BIDES. 

The first ride in every new place is always the most strik- 
ing, but perhaps not the most pleasing, for I believe more 
pleasure is derived from the study of what we know than from 
the transient though more glowing charm of novelty. With 
Madeira this is particularly the case. There, you are put on 
a horse shod in such a way as you never saw before; you ride 
on such roads as, I may safely say, you have never had any 



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CHAP. I.] PIO-NICS. 9 

experience of; and you pass at every step precipitous rocks, 
strange trees, and beautiful plants, with a mind half occupi^d 
in admiring what you see, half anxious lest one mistake on 
your horse's part should end at once your pleasures and your 
pains. On the other hand, there is no place where you are 
less wearied by having the same prospect always before you ; 
it is constantly varied by ever-flying clouds, and the warm 
red colouring of the hills gjves a tone that would not be 
believed if seen on paper. 

The horses to be procured in Madeira are good for their 
work, and very sure-footed. Accidents seldom happen, not- 
withstanding the bad roads and steep precipices ; indeed it is 
astonishing to see the places these animals will traverse with- 
out making a false step, picking their own way much better 
than their rider can guide them. 

PIC-NIC8. 

Let us suppose ourselves about to join one of these pic-nic 
riding parties. Here we are all together, fifteen of us, on a 
lovely day in February, with the thermometer standing at 69 de- 
grees Fahrenheit in the shade at nine o'clock in the morning. 
Our destination is the Curral das Freiras. At first starting 
the roads are broad and good, as far as paved roads may be 
called good. About Funchal the roads are lined on either 
side with walls, which are generally covered with heliotropes, 
roses, geraniums, fuchsias, &c., in wild profusion. Some of 
the most picturesque views of the town are to be found be- 
tween these walls, which, with their odorous clothing, form 
delicious foregrounds. They are sometimes almost closed 
over above your head by a treillage of vines which project 
&om the vineyards on both sides. One of the great amuse- 
ments of the Portuguese who have Quintas, and gardens, 

B 3 



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10 THE E8TBEIT0. — THB JABDDC. [ohap. i. 

by the roadsides, oonsists in sitting in the Mirdntes, or look- 
out seats, and gazing on the passers-bj. This seems quite 
a national taste, from the laughing black eyes that quiz the 
sitrangiiros in their queer costumes, to the old Morgado 
in his flowered dressing-gown. There they sit all day, 
whilst their dogs come barking at you along the tops of 
the walls, cracking the drums of your ears by their mongrel 
yelps. 

But to return to our party. We leave the road to Camera 
de Lobos on our left, and begin to ascend in good earnest. 
The road grows narrower and steeper; still there is no inter- 
mission of the gallop for horse or burroquero; at last we 
reach the church of 

THE E8TBEIT0. 

Here the gentlemen of the advance guard dismount, to rest 
their horses, and give time to those behind with timid nerves, 
slow animals, or merciful hearts, to catch them up. But 
who is that respectable individual in a gay robe, and cap 
worked by some feur fingers ? It is the Padre of the Estreito. 
He bows and smiles, and invites you, by signs, if you don't 
understand Portuguese, to see the fine prospect from the top 
of his church. But the rest of the party have assembled; 
and, receiving the Padre's blessing in a friendly nod, perhaps 
contributing some trifle for the poor, you mount your horses 
and make the best of your way to 

THE JABDIM. 

You are now three thousand feet above the sea. This 
beautiful place belongs to the late Consul, Mr. Veitch. He 
has built his house in the Italian style, and surrounded 
it with woods of Spanish chestnut. In the grounds near 



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CBAP.i.] OUBBAL DAS FBEIBAS. 11 

the house are cultivated the chief varieties of tea grown in 
China, with many other rare and curious plants. A visit 
to the Jardim, with the owner's permission, would well repay 
you. Another halt is called to collect the party, and then, it 
may he through a slight mist or cloud, you ride on to the 
Curral. 

OUBRAL DAS FBEIBAS. 

You dismount, and are surrounded hy a troop of girls 
begging, and ragged boys and men offering you sticks to as- 
sist in your ascent. Advance a few steps on the inclined 
green sward ; what a prospect bursts upon your sight ! for a 
second or two you are puzzled by the grandeur of the view 
that presents itself; you see with your unaccustomed eyes, 
mountains, trees, sky, at first in unarranged proportions.: by 
degrees things begin to take their places, and you tremble on 
the brink of an abyss that yawns below you, and points with 
jagged fingers, uplifted six thousand feet, to a clear blue 
heaven that seems to smile at your puny wonder. Thin 
fleeting clouds pass away below, and disclose new beau- 
ties. The church of Libramento looks like an atom at the 
bottom of a vast basin, though it stands two thousand feet 
above the sea. But our point is Pico Grande, and we must 
linger no longer. The road now assumes a different cha- 
racter: heretofore we have ascended and descended hills, 
steep enough, surely, and trodden roads that seemed slippery 
and hard enough : but now we long for such again ; large 
loose stones and solid rocks have taken their place; a per- 
pendicular cliff is above you on one side, a precipice below you 
on the other : one start of your horse would be fatal. Walk- 
ing is out of the question, unless you are equal to much 



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12 PICO QRAHDE.— 8H0BT BOAD TO THE CUBBAL. [chap. x. 

flatigae ; so in single file we wind round and round again by 
tortuous paths, repaid each step by new appearing wonders. 
Another hour of such riding brings us to the foot of 

PIOO OBANDB. 

The baskets are assembled, and the provisions emptied out ; 
gentlemen vie with each other in attentions to the wants of 
their fair companions; the best seat is recommended, the 
umbrella carefully arranged to save the trouble of holding it, 
and the plate filled with the choicest of the feast. To food 
and rest, and pure invigorating air, what a zest is added, if 
you have any soul for nature, by looking out on the one side 
on the Pico Huivo, on the embattled Torrinhas, on the 
rugged Sidrao and Arriero, and on the other on the long un- 
broken Paxil, with the Serra d*Agoa clothed in forest verdure 
ever green below it. 

The journey back is generally performed rapidly, the 
horses know they are going home, and their riders do not 
stop BO much to look about them. If you get back at seven 
o'clock, I will venture to say you will be quite ready for bed 
at nine, to dream of the Curral and hair-breadth escapes, and 
to wake at daylight to the consideration of what shall be your 
next expedition. 

SHOBT BOAD TO THE CUBBAL. 

There is a shorter way to the Curral than the one that has 
just been described, approaching it from the other side. A 
zigzag road leads down to the bottom, where the scene is 
varied by cottages, gardens, and plantations ; these enable 
you to appreciate the loftier features of the scene by com- 
parison. If you wish to make a long day of it, you may 



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CHAP. 1.] EXPEDITION TO CAPE GIBAO. — CAMERA DE LOBOS. 13 

ascend a winding path which runs down the east flank of 
Pico Grande, and so return home by the Jardim. 

EXPEDITION TO CAPE GIBAO. 

There are numerous other points which are frequently se- 
lected as the objects of these excursions. Cape Girao is less 
distant than Pico Grande, the road is good the whole way, 
and you get over the ground much faster. Riding along the 
sea-side, at the expiration of an hour and a half you find 
yourself at the picturesque little village of 

CAMERA DE LOBOS. 

The inhabitants are all fishermen, and supply the Funchal 
market. The yillage is curiously situated, built on and ex- 
cavated into a rock that stands prominently out in the bay. 

Ascending the hill on the other side of the village, you 
pass through a country which grows some of the best wine in 
the island. With the sun on your back, you toil up this hill, 
and are thankful when you at last reach the venda of Cape 
Girao, after a ride of about two hours and a half: here most 
people prefer to get off and trust to their own legs rather than 
their horses' ; the party now proceeds to look down the pre- 
cipice. The first sensation on looking straight down a 
height of two thousand feet, is a slight quiver through your 
frame ; the sea looks so small dashing against the rocks be- 
low, and you cannot help rejoicing when you have got safely 
away. 

Groups of peasants soon collect together, and hurl frag- 
ments of rock down the cliff to show you how long they are in 
reaching the bottom. There are patches of cultivated 
ground by the sea-side below, and one cannot but fancy that 
this practice of stone-rolling might be attended with results 



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14 EXPEDITION TO HACHICO.—8AN0TA GBUZ, ETC. [chap. I. 

beneath, of a different nature from what the students of the 
laws of attraction above might desire. At the bottom of the 
cliff, stones are quarried at some peril, for building purposes. 
Frail ladders are the only means by which the quarry can be 
reached. All the ''cantaria moUe,"* both red and gray, is 
quarried here; the **carUaria riga" comes from the parish 
of the Estreito of Camera de Lobos. 

Beyond Cape Girao the ride is sometimes extended to the 
Campanario ; here grows a Spanish chestnut of immense size, 
which has been hollowed out, and the interior has been con- 
verted into a small room. It is 86 feet in circumference, and 
continues to bear a vigorous foliage. 

EXPEDITION TO ILLCHICO. 

Another long day's excursion is to Machico. Starting at 
eight o'clock in the morning, and riding along a road possess- 
ing but little interest, you come, at the end of two hours and 
a half, upon the town of 

SANOTA GBUZf. 

A fine specimen of the date-bearing palm is here an object 
of some curiosity. It is not till you open out the fertile 
valley of Machico I that you are repaid, as regards scenery, 
for your long ride. 

HAOHIOO. 

At the village of Machico you are taken to see Machim*s 
chapel §, and are shown the remains of the cedar cross. 
Your route now lies up the ravine, which is closed in on the 

* " CarUaria molle** is a soft stone, or fireestone, used in buildings and 
" Ccmtaria riga " is a harder material. 
+ See "Sketches in Madeira," \>y Lady S. Y. Haiconrt 
t Ibid. § See chap. iv. page 64. 



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CHAP. I.] POBTELLA. — SEBBA BE SANTO ANTONIO, ETC. 15 

north and east by high hills, and is covered with a profusion 
of vineyards, white quintas, and straw-thatched cottages. 

POBTELLA. 

Mounting to the Portella, which is a sort of natural gate- 
way hewn in the ridge of rocks, you obtain a glorious view on 
all sides : the high peaks of Ruivo ; the Valley of Faial, with 
the grand insulated rock of the Penha d'Aguia in its bosom ; 
the Point S^ Louren9o ; and beyond it the Island of Porto 
Santo iu the distance. 

SEBBA DE SANTO ANTONIO. 

Your ride home continues across the Serra of Santo An- 
tonio; the word serra means a saw, and has been origi- 
nally applied to a serrated mountain range ; in Madeira the 
term is used to express an elevated plain. This serra is a 
place of summer resort ; it is famous for the fine urze * trees 
which grow in the vicar*s garden. There is a building 
erected near the church for the accommodation of tourists, 
which bears the name of the pilgrims* house. 

OAMACHA. 

Next you come to Camacha, another place of summer re- 
sidence, preferred by many from its being nearer to the town. 
At last you reach the Palheiro, and thence descending on 
Funchal, finish a long day's work of nine or ten hours' 
duration. 

PALHEIBO. 

The Palheiro was the chief country residence of the 
wealthy Count Carvalhal, who formerly owned nearly one- 

* Tree heath. 



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16 AFTEBNOON BIDES. — BOATINO EXCUB8I0KS. . [chap. x. 

third of the island : the present possessor is a minor : the 
grounds are laid out after the manner of an English park : 
the gardens show signs of former care and magnificence, and 
are fiEunous for their lofty camellias, and for Portugal laurels 
as large as timher trees. 

AFTEBNOON BIDES. 

Amongst the most favourite afternoon rides is one hj Fort 
S^ Gon9alb, on the Sancta Cruz road, returning home hy 
the Palheiro; another to the little Curral, as it is called, 
going hy the Mount Church, and returning either by the 
Caminho de Meio or the Palheiro ; a third along the new 
road to Praia Formosa, passing the Forja de Ferreiro and the 
Gorgulho ; a fourth, the road round by 8^ Roque, Santo 
Antonio, and S^ Martinho ; a fifth by the Alegria *, &c. 

BOATINa EXCUBSIONS. 

For those who are fond of boating, there are many very 
pleasant excursions. To Cape Girao, for instance, at the 
base of which you form almost a grander conception of the 
gigantic cliff than even by looking down from its summit. A 
further expedition along this coast is to Ponta do Sol, a pretty 
little town about three hours' pull from Funchal ; here you 
may perhaps procure ponies, or walk back to Eibeira Bravaf, 
sending your boat there to meet you, and then take ship 
again home. On the other side, Sancta Cruz, Machico, and 
Cam9al afford objects for a cruise. From the chapel of 
N. S. da Piedade, above Cam9al, you have a magnificent 
view of the north coast of the island as far as Santa Anna. Its 
black frowning cliffs stand in strong contrast with the smiles 

* The country residence of Mrs. Penfold. 

t See " Sketches in Madeira," by Lady S. V. Harcourt 



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CHAP. I.] EXPEDITION TO B^P VINOENTE. 17 

of the southern coast, which lies extended hefore you on the 
left. Some people prefer making the expeditions to Machico 
and the fossil beds of Cani9al from Sancta Cruz, where there 
is good accommodation ; a sojourn there of a few days affords 
an agreeable change from Funchal. 

EXPEDITION TO S^P VINCENTB. 

If any one desires, however, not to leave Madeira without 
having seen the most striking features and grandest deve- 
lopment of its scenery, he must not satisfy himself with 
a distant glimpse only of the northern side of the island. 
Let us, then, make an expedition to the north, and consider 
what is most worthy of notice there. We will set off early, 
and go to S^ Vincente by the Jardim and the Curral; as far 
as Pico Grande is old ground to us, but it does not lose by a 
second visit : passing on, we come to a road cut in the fSeuse 
of a lofty cliff, being the base of the Pico Grande, firom 
which the water is rilling down, and splashes you as you 
pass : below is a basin of forests, broken here and there by 
mountain torrents ; presently you reach the Encumeado * of 
Sy* Vincente, where the magnificent woods present a rich 
feast to the eye, and you look down upon the beautiful Serra 
d'Agoa opening to the sea at Eibeira Brava. There has 
been a swollen torrent here lately, and part of the bridge is 
washed away : enough of the fabric remains for a man to 
walk upon, but the horses cannot pass ; your burroquero does 
not help you, he looks on in helpless terror. What is to be 
done? See, there are some planks below that have been 
stayed by that mass of rock in the bed of the torrent ; with 
the assistance of your boys you at length get them up, and 

* ''Encumeado" is a spot tm etme, "on a high place," or summit of a 
mountam. 



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18 BABA94L. [OHAP.x. 

construct a rickety pathway for the animals, which with some 
coaxing you persuade them to pass, and proceed on your 
journey exulting in your success. The first view of S^ 
Vincente is very striking as you look down upon it from 
the heights. The town is composed of several huts and a 
few hotter houses, amongst which may be distinguished that 
of S^ Manoel Joaquim da Costa Andrade, whose hospitable 
door has been so often opened to the English traveller*. 
These are built on a ribeiro that assumes a fork-like shape as 
it approaches the sea. At the extremity of this fork is situated 
a small rock which has been hollowed out and turned into a 
chapel ; mass is celebrated in it once a year. From this point 
you obtain a good view of the coast as far as Porto Moniz ; the 
north here outdoes itself in rugged steepness. From S^ 
Vincente you can either proceed to the east or west; if you 
take the western side, you ascend first the Paiil da Serra by 
a very steep road, covered with loose stones. 

RABA9AL. 

We next come to that great work, the levada of the 
Baba9al. The difficulties to be overcome in constructing this 
watercourse were enormous. There is here a vast perpen- 
dicular rock, 1000 feet high, the water from the summit 
of which fell over the slightly-projecting edge, and was lost 
in the ravine below. The object of the proposer of the work 
was to catch this stream in its descent, where it struck upon 
the face of the rock, and, carrying it off by a levada, to apply 
it to the irrigation and fertilizing of a comparatively barren 
tract. To effect this it was necessary to make a course in 
the hard and high rock, mid-way betwixt the top and the 
base. The engineer had a crate constructed, in which the 

* An inn hat lately been established at 8^ Vincente. 



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CHAP. I.J CALHBTA. — EXPBDITION TO SANTA ANNA. 19 

workmen were placed, and let down by means of ropes to 
the point required. In this way they worked, subject to the 
drippings of the cold stream above, and often with great diffi- 
culty getting out of the way of the explosions from the blast- 
ing of the rock. When this operation was finished, a tunnel 
was to be bored through the end of the Paiil da Serra, and a 
levada six miles long constructed. The work was commenced 
in 1836, and carried on for some years ; the course along the 
fece of the rock was actually completed to a length of 700 
feet, and connected with a levada extending six miles ; but, 
alas ! as far as the tunnel was concerned, want of funds inter- 
fered, and half the project only was executed. The water, 
consequently, stiU loses itself in the Bibeira Janella, and the 
thirsty vines of the south still want what if bestowed upon 
them would double their fertility *. The views of the Baba^al 
are certainly amongst the finest in Madeira. 

CALHETA. 

Your road now continues to Calheta, where you find a very 
good inn to rest at after your fiatigues. The next day you 
can either return to Funchal by water, if the wind and 
weather suits, or make a land voyage of it, which, however, 
is less pleasant, as the road is long and bad. 

EXPEDITION TO SANTA ANNA. 

Let us now start again from S*^ Vincente, and take the 
eastward route to Santa Anna along the sea-coast. The road 
leads by the shore across a stream, which at high water is 
sometimes dangerous to pass, to Ponta Delgada, a pretty 

* The tiumd is now finished^ and there are good hopes of the whole work 
being completed. 



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20 BOA YENTUBA. — EMTBOZA PASS. [obap. i. 

village with a good church. Here you hare none of the 
gradual sloping of tufa plains towards the sea that you find 
on the south side, but a lofty iron front is everywhere pre- 
sented to the angry waves. A narrow horse-road, bold, but 
safe, skirts the midway of these high cliffs, which tower 
1000 feet above you, so perpendicularly as to hide from 
your sight, in some places, an almost vertical sun, whilst 
the sea is nearly as fiEtr below your feet. Here and there, 
where some ravine gives an outlet to a torrent that perhaps 
originally formed it, you come upon a lovely village which is 
a garden of vines and chestnuts. 

BOA VENTTJBA. 

After passing the Ponta Delgada, you leave the shore and 
ascend a winding road up a steep hill, to descend again into 
the ravine of the Boa Ventura. You can return to Funchal 
up the valley, passing through the Curral. The road is very 
bad, and the journey fatiguing, but you are rewarded for it by 
the grandeur of the views. 

ENTBOZA PASS. 

Next you come to the Entroza Pass, where the steadiness 
of your own head and your horse's hoofs are put to a severe 
trial; the road is narrow, and covered with loose stones; 
a precipice below you overhangs the sea, and a cliff aboVe you 
presents a smooth high side which it makes you giddy to look 
up to. This steep pathway is said to be constructed on 
timbers projecting out of the bare rock. There is more 
danger in appearance, however, than reality, and accidents 
seldom happen ; many, however, prefer their own legs to those 
of their horses, in passing this point. 



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CHAP. I.] S^? JORGE. — SANTA ANNA. — ^PICO tlUIVO. 21 



S^^ JORGE. 

The next place of importance you reach is S^ Jorge; 
thence to Santa Anna is ahout an hour's ride. At S^ Jorge 
Dr. Oliviera has built a large house for himself, as a summer 
residence, and is doing a public service by setting an example 
of improved cultivation. 

SANTA ANNA. 

At Santa Anna you dismount at the house of 8^ Luiz 
Acciaioli, who unites to the attention of the host the manners 
of the gentleman, and provides good accommodation on rea- 
sonable terms. From Santa Anna there are excursions suffi- 
cient to detain you there two or three days. 

PICO RUIVO. 

The ride from Santa Anna up Pico Ruivo is beautiful. 
Passing through beds of furze, bilberry, and heather, you 
have some of the most magnificent views in the island, and 
look down on all sides on a grand variety. Many, however, 
are the parties that have been disappointed in their visits to 
the heights of Madeira. Starting perhaps vnth an unclouded 
sky, you barely reach the summit before light mists have 
begun to ascend from the valleys beneath you ; these quickly 
gather, and enshroud you in an impenetrable veil. Woe 
betide those who are separated at such times from their 
guides: to find your way, without knowing the land-marks, 
is impossible. Perhaps a goat-path presents itself to you 
in your distress; you follow it along the edge of some 
frightful chasm till it becomes undistinguishable ; you pro- 
ceed, forcing your way through the underwood with which the 
banks are clad hanging on where the descent is almost 



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2d yiSTA OF FAIAL. — ^MBTADE YALLET. [chap, i . 

perpendicular, till at last you are stopped abruptly by a 
precipice. A glimpse between the passing clouds shows you 
that you are in an entirely wrong direction. You wearily 
retrace your steps, by good fortune reach the spot where you 
left your horse and guide, but find them there no more. The 
only remaining course is to walk home,' periiaps an operation 
of four or fire hours. To make the picture perfect, we may 
imagine a heavy tropical rain to come on towards evening. 

VISTA OF FAIAL. 

Riding from Santa Anna to the Vista of Faial, you have a 
beautiful view of the detached mass of rock of the Penha 
d'Aguia*, backed by Point S^ Louren^o, jutting into the 
sea far eastward, and the intervening capes. If you have 
time, you can visit Faial and Porto da Cruz beyond it ; some 
return thus to Funchal, going by way of Sancta Cruz. 

IIETADE VALLET. 

However, the direct way is the best, if it were only to see 
the Metade Valley. This ravine is one of the deepest in the 
island; the mountains at its head are often capped with 
clouds, and seem invested with a kind of mysterious grandeur. 
On the road you get a very good broadside view of the Penha 
d*Aguia t through a frame of chestnuts covered with vines. 
At the time of pruning it is a curious sight to see the groves 
of chestnuts, each tree with its man on it, the whole forest of 
them chattering, singing, and working away most merrily. 
The chestnut trees of the north are all lopped at the top 
to stunt their growth, and make them better trainers for 
the vines. 

• See « Sketches in Madeira," by Lady S. V. Harcourt * + Ibid. 



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CHAP. 1.3 EIBEIBO FBIO. — LAMTJCEIRAS. 28 



BIBEIBO FBIO. 

At length you reach the Bibeiro Frio. The scene here 
presents a softer aspect, and forms a pleasing contrast to the 
wild majesty of what you have just seen. If you have not 
been there before, take your luncheon up to the kvada; there 
you look down the road you have come up, and see your old 
friend the Penha d'Aguia at the bottom of the Metade Valley. 
Passing along the same levada, round a projecting cliff, you 
come upon all the peaks, in full grandeur arrayed before you. 

Leaving the Kibeiro Frio, and riding through woo^s of til 
and vinhatico, you mount to a Serra, where there is turf for 
a gallop, a great rarity in Madeira. Again you ascend, and 
when you presently descend, the shipping opens out, and now 
Funchal smiles brightly upon you with its white sunny 
look, as though it would welcome you back after your 
northern tour. 

LAMUCEIBAS. 

On the whole, I think if I had to recommend an excursion 
to a person who was only going to make a single one in the 
island, I should be inclined to choose the Lamuceiras. Take 
a cloudless day, start at eight o'clock, and go by the Caminho 
de Meio. The hill is certainly steep, but you are rewarded • 
by a fine fresh air when you get to the top. The riding is all 
very pleasant, first over turf, and presently amongst the bilberry 
bushes, through which you pass for some miles ; then Point 
S^ Louren§o comes in sight, and at last, through groves of 
laurels, you reach the Pico d'Assoma. Here, on a bank of 
violets, you may open the luncheon basket. Your fore- 
ground is formed of evergreens ; the grand peaks of Ruivo, 
Arriero, and Torrinhas are before you; below them the 



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24 SUIOCABY. [CHAP. I. 

Metade Valley, the Bibeiro Frio, and Santa Anna; to your 
right are the Penha d*Agma, Faial, and Porto da Croz ; behind 
you the Portella, Machico, S^ Louren^o, Gani9al, and the 
Serra de Santo Antonio. In fact, you hare in sight almost 
the whole of the east of the island. You may return by Santo 
Antonio da Serra, passing through a country beautified with 
fuchsias, geraniums, oaks, broom, gorse, com, vines, &c. 

SUIOCABT. 

To give a general summary of the appearance of the 
island we may describe it thus : — It consists of a mass of moun- 
tains, whose highest points rise to a central ridge. The whole 
coast is composed of clifiEs, varying in height from one hun- 
dred to two thousand feet ; abrupt and lofty in their general 
character on the north side of the island, and of a lower 
smoother aspect on the south, llie central mountains 
branch down to the sea in ridges or chines, which are parted 
by precipitous chasms, called here ravines, and which consti- 
tute the grandest features of the Madeira scenery. In some 
parts the ravines are full of dark forests, reflecting a solemn 
shade on the precipices that support them. The towns are 
for the most part planted in the bosoms of these ravines, 
which certainly resemble one another, yet in each there is 
sufl&cient individuality to relieve any feeling of monotony. 
From the tops of the mountains you discover the sea on 
all sides of you, but far from detracting from the grandeur of 
the prospect, the limited extent of land rather adds to a feel- 
ing of awe, when you consider that you are perched on a point, 
as it were, in the midst of the vast Atlantic. 



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CHAPTEK 11. 



MISCELLANEOUS INFOEMATION. 







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From a SAeteA by Lady Susan Venum Harcutart. 

View of Funchal from Hollway's Cottage. 



^ page 27. 



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CHAPTER II. 

iflSCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



'* Each little adcteth to the general store. 
Who follows learns from him that went before." 

Pek's Pobms. 



Passports. — Means of conye3rance.-^ Lodgings. — Servants. — Money. — Pro- 
visions. — Markets.—: Clothing. — Horses. — Boats. — Oxen. — British places 
of worship. — English burial grounds. — Shrove Tuesday. — Public amuse- 
ments. — Parties. 



PASSPORTS. 

Passports for Madeira may be obtained without any payment 
from the Portuguese Minister in London ; otherwise you are 
presented on your arrival with a permit of residence, for 
which you do pay. On leaving Madeira you are required to 
take a passport. 

MEANS OF CONVEYANCE. 

The trading brigs which ply between London, Portsmouth, 
Southampton, and Madeira are very commodious ; the cap- 
tains are attentive to their passengers, and the fare is excel- 
lent. Two or three of them generally sail in the course of a 
month : they make the passage, on an average, in twelve 
or fourteen days. There are no fixed days for sailingj but 
they always advertise themselves in the Times, The passage- 



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M LODOINOS. 

money is £17 : for this sum yoa are provided with every re- 
quisite for lodging and for board. 

It is usual for these traders, during the winter, to make at 
least one trip to Teneriffe, thus affording an opportunity of 
visiting that far-famed island, besides the benefit to the in- 
valid of a sea-voyage. 

The new line of steamers to the Brazils offers another 
means of conveyance to Madeira'*'. The passage-money 
by these boats is £20. Return fares have been esta- 
blished, at the rate of £33 out and home. An abate- 
ment of one-sixth of the established rates is made in 
favour of families. 

It is not safe for persons in delicate health, after having 
spent the winter in a warm climate, to &ce the uncertain 
weather of England much before June. In the month of 
April some of the sailing brigs are in the habit of conveying 
passengers to Cadiz, and a month spent in Spain or Portugal 
on the way home makes a pleasing variety. The hie to 
Cadiz, by the brigs, is £8 6<. 8(1., and to Lisbon, by the 
steamers, £7 5«. lOd. The Portuguese traders take you to 
Lisbon for £5 4«. 2i. 

LODGINGS. 

Lodgings in Madeira are plentiful and good. For a 
family, the most comfortable plan is to take a Quinta, that is 

* These boats leare Southampton at 6 p.m. on the 9th of each month, 
and arriTe at Lisbon on the 14th, at 6 a.m. ; stop one day ; leave Lisbon on 
the 15th, at 6 A.M., and arrive at Madeira on the 18th, at 1 a.m. Thence 
they proceed to the Brazils, vid Teneriffe and De Yerd Islands, and on their 
return arrive at Madeira on the 8rd of the following month, at 8 P.M.; they 
leave Madeira on the 4th, at 8 a.h., and arrive at Lisbon on the 6th, at 
10 P.M. ; leave Lisbon on the 7th, at 10 p.m., and arrive at Southampton on 
the 12th, at 10 a.m. 



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CHAP. II.] SERVANTS. 97 

to say, a house with a garden, standing in the suburbs of the 
town. The price asked for the season of six months varies 
according to their size, from £50 to £200. In such cases the 
tenant is supplied with everything but plate* and house 
linen. For single persons the boarding-houses are least trou- 
blesome, as well as most economical: a bed-room, sitting- 
room, attendance, and board are obtained there for fifty 
dollars, or £10 8«. 4(2. a month. These houses are con- 
ducted on a liberal scale, and every English comfort is pro- 
vided. If a Quinta is taken, a supply of servants, board, 
plate, and linen, may be procured at a given ratef. It is 
inconceivable what annoyances you are saved by such an 
arrangement ; besides the endless impositions practised upon 
the ignorance of foreigners by servants and tradesmen, it is 
no small luxury to be able to pay a given sum down monthly, 
instead of the interminable daily payments which the ready 
money system of Madeira requires. 

SERVANTS. 

Portuguese servants may be hired for house and kitchen 
work at the rate of about &om four to six dollars per month 
for the former, and from six to eight dollars for the latter ser- 
vice. Those who are content with a plain table, average 
honesty, and moderate attention, have no reason to be dis- 
satisfied. 

* Plate, fiimitnre, pianofortes, saddles, guns, and, in &ct, any things that 
are brought out as luggage, are allowed to pass through the Custom House 
free of charge, on the bond of some resident householder being given that 
the owner of the property will export it in eighteen months. 

f Mr. William Wilkinson was the first to undertake arrangements of this 
description, and Mr. Beid is also willing to supply fiunilies visiting Madeira 
for the winter in the same manner. 



c 2 



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28 MONEY. roHAF. n. 

MONEY. 

The Mexican dollar, the American half-dollar, and smaller 
Spanish silver coins, are most commonly used in Madeira. 
The money is all reckoned by an imaginary standard called a 
ree^ which is equal to about the one-twentieth part of a penny. 
Gem rets, which the Portuguese call a tostaS, and the English 
a hit, equal fivepence ; two of these coins, equivalent to a 
French/ranc, the English call apUtareen; they are represented 
respectively, as far as currency is concerned, by the pesita and 
half peseta of Spain. Two peskas the Portuguese call a 
crusado. The pesStas are sometimes of ancient date and in 
excellent preservation, looking as if they had been long 
hoarded, and accordingly many are the legends of secreted 
treasures, and many the fruitless searches which have been 
made under old floors for them. Mil rei$, or patdca, is the 
name applied to dollars, whether they be the pillared dollars 
of Spain, the Mexican, Bolivian, or Peruvian, and all are re- 
duced to the same value of four shillings and twopence. The 
weight, indeed, and intrinsic value of all the different dollars 
is nearly the same. The pillared dollars of Spain have ob- 
tained a general preference, due either to the silver being less 
alloyed, or, as some say, to their being the only dollar ac- 
cepted by the Moors, who will take no coin to which they have 
been unaccustomed. In China, where the value of silver is . 
of serious commercial consequence, there has been lately 
published a curious official paper, setting forth the relative 
worth to shopkeepers of the various coins. " It has already 
been proved by assay," this document says, " that the quality 
of the fowl money (Mexican dollar), compared with the foreign 
face money (Spanish dollar) is inferior in value one can- 
dareen, 43-10 and decimals of a cash; that of the tree 



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CHAP. U.J PBOVI8ION8.— MABKETS. — CLOTmNa. — HOKSES. 29 

money (Bolivian Republic dollar) is superior 6-10 and 
decimals of a cash; that of the staff dollar (Peruvian 
Republic dollar) is superior 44-10 and decimals of a 
cash,'' English gold and silver coin is current for its full 
value: the sovereign always passes for four thousand eight 
hundred reis. United States gold and silver coin, the dol- 
lars of Mexico and the South American Republics, together 
with their decimal parts, and Spanish doubloons, are likewise 
current in Madeira. South American doubloons, and the 
silver coins of Portugal and the Brazils, are not received in 
payments. Copper is the only Portuguese money used in 
the island. Hard cash is the best resource for a visitor 
to be provided with, as from one to five per cent, is lost 
on letters of credit. 

PROVISIONS. 

Provisions of all sorts are cheap. English bread, which 
is sold at ^^d, the pound, is the dearest article of food ; the 
quality of it, however, is excellent. Mutton, which is an 
indifferent meat, fetches from S^d. to 4:d» a pound; beef, 
which is good, from ^^d. to 4{/.; and veal from 4:d. to 6d. 
Fowls may be purchased at from lOd. to 1«. 3d. a couple. 

MARKETS. 

The markets are held at daybreak, and all the meat, the 
best fish, and best fruits are bought at that time. Tea, soap, 
and tobacco are contraband, but the Custom House is not 
inexorable. 

CLOTHING. 

A common English wardrobe, with the addition of a few 
lighter articles and a waterproof covering for the mountains, 
suffices for clothing. 

HORSES. 

The horse is an almost indispensable part of the establish- 



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30 H0B8ES. rcBAF. II. 

ment of Tisitors to Madeira. The prices, whether for sale or 
hire, are apparently high ; hut it most he considered that the 
freightage of horses from England, which is the ordinary 
source of the supply, amounts to £15, and that they are on 
hand for half the year. The price at present charged for horse 
hire is thirty dollars (£6 5«.) per month. The most economi- 
cal plan is to huy your horse on first arriving. His keep will 
cost you £1 1$. 4(i. per month of twenty-eight days, his 
shoeing 4«. Sd., his hedding 3s. 4(1., and his groom £1 5«. — 
total, £2 3<. lOd. per month ; making a difference hetween the 
cost of keeping and hiring (when Sa, 4(2. per month to a groom 
is added to the latter) of £3 19«. 6d. in favour of the former. 
Of course into the opposite balance you must put the loss on 
the sale of your horse at the end of the season, as well as the 
interest on your purchase-money meanwhile; hut all this 
leaves you mth a clear gain in favour of purchase. Say you 
give £25 for a horse on arriving, keep it for sis months at 
a cost of £16 3«., and sell it when you go for £15, allow 
the purchase-money a value of four per cent., or 10«., thei;i 
your horse will stand you in £26 Ids. ; whereas, the cost 
of hiring for the same period of six months would be 
£40. Where more horses than one are kept the difference 
is more than proportionably greater. As one groom does 
for all, £7 10s. is to be deducted for wages and keep for 
six months from the expenses of every additional horse; 
moreover, the groom does other things for you besides attend- 
ing to your horse. You are generally advised to take out 
saddles vdth you to Madeira ; but in most instances, where 
you buy, the saddle is sold with the pony, and where 
you hire, the saddles furnished by the stable-keepers are quite 
good enough, being almost all English. Those, however, 
who take saddles find a ready sale for them on leaving the 
island. 



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CHAP. I1.J BOATS. 31 

The horses in Madeira are fed chiefly pn mUho (Indian 
com). MUho may be bought for Is, 5|(2. the alqueire (two- 
fifths of a bushel), retail price. An alqueire lasts four days if 
the horse is allowed a quarter a day, ax^d he works very well 
on that. When the milho is crushed it is more nourishing, 
and goes much further. Add one alqtieire of bran, which will 
cost you lOi., to every four alqudres of crushed milho, and it 
will make a good mash for your horse, besides preventing 
your groom from appropriating the com to his own use. The 
fodder given to horses, which they call herva, is a com- 
pound of sugar-cane leaves, vine leaves when in season, and 
other similar materials: 5e2. a day of this is amply sufficient. 
In going to the north of the island it is advisable to take 
com for the horses, as everything of that sort is dear 
there. A race-course exists near Funchal, supported by 
subscription; not that there are often races upon it, but 
it is almost the only place where you can get a gallop. 
A ticket taken for the season enables a gentleman to admit 
ladies. 

BOATS. 

The boats in Madeira are excellent They are protected 
€^ainst the danger of being stove in when hauled up on so 
steep a shore by the contrivance of two false keels at the 
sides. The boatman's charge is Is. M, an hour. The dex- 
terity displayed by these men in launching their passengers 
and landing them on the beach is very great. In the former 
process they wait till a wave rises to the proper height, 
then instantly shove the boat down to meet it, and the 
passenger, seated within, finds himself drawn away on the 
crest of the receding water. The least clumsiness would be 
fatal. If the boat were run down before the wave broke, it 
would probably break into it, and if too late, the boat would be 



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83 OXEN, [OHAV. c» 

dragged broadside on, presenting its side for the next wave to 
wash over. On landing, after being accustomed to demure 
English ways, you are scared at the hideous yells which seem 
requisite whenever Portuguese strength is exerted. How- 
ever, all is cleverly managed. 

OXEN. 

Where the boats are heavy, oxen are often employed to drag 
them on shore. These animals convey all heavy goods. They 
are harnessed to sledges, which are, in fact, nothing but fiat 
pieces of wood attached to a yoke. The oxen are preceded 
by a man, who acts as their leader, and whom they follow 
wherever he goes ; and driven by another, who holds in one 
hand a goad, consisting of a long stick with an iron point 
about an inch in length, and in the other a rag, which he wets 
from time to time, and puts under the sledge to make it ion 
more smoothly on the stones and prevent its taking fire. 
These men make most unearthly noises and screams, which 
are intended to encourage the team. " Ca para Mem Boi" is 
a familiar sound to all who have visited Madeira. The work 
is severe for the oxen, and they are only employed tihree days 
a week. They have lately been made feishionable animals by 
the introduction of oxen-cars, or sledges, for human convey- 
ance*. 




OXBK-CUU 



* Captain C. Bulkeley, late of the 2nd Life GKiards^ first introduced these 
useful Tehicles into Madeira, in the year 1848. 



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CHAP, u.] BBinSH PLACE9 OF WORSHIP. — BURIAL GROUNDS. 33 



BRITISH PLACES OF WORSHIP. 

There are three British places of worship at present in 
Madeira; two Church of England, and one Presbyterian. 

ENGLISH BURIAL GROUNDS. 

In former days, before the power of the Inquisition was 
broken in Portugal, the bodies of all whom the Holy Office 
termed heretics were forbidden the rites of Christian burial. 
Ovington* relates a barbarous instance of their bigotry : " An 
English merchant dying, all the other merchants of the same 
nation, willing to inter the body decently, and yet to avoid 
the rigorous impositions of the Inquisition, determined to 
have it carried in the night over the rocks into the moun- 
tains; however, their design was discovered by that jealous 
tribunal, and they were watched to the place of interment. 
Scarce had the corpse been laid in the dust when they 
were surrounded by the corregidors and officers of justice, 
assisted by a large body of armed men, who immediately 
dug up the body, exposed it to public insults, and then 
threw it into the sea, with all possible marks of infamy 
and disgrace." Keligious toleration, which always accom- 
panies the progress of a more healthy policy, has now granted 
to the English in Madeira two places of burial for their 
dead : the one is used by those constantly resident in the 
island; the other contains the bodies of those who, seeking 
for health in a foreign land, have there found rest for ever. 
The cypress droops over the stranger's grave, and many a 
flower decks his lonely tomb. 



• Voyage to Suratt, 1689, p. 28. 



C 3 



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34 SHBOYE TUESDAY. — PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS, ETC. foHAr. n. 
SHBOVE TUESDAY. 

The ceremonial customs of the Romish Church in Madeira 
are not obserred in a manner to attract much of the attention 
of strangers, unless it be in the grotesque observance of 
Shrove Tuesday. Bad eggs, water, and blacking are stored 
in preparation for that day. Some bridge or comer of a 
street is selected by the different parties of mummers. The 
operators are dressed in their worst clothes, and their hands 
and faces covered with their own blacking. The passers- 
by run the gauntlet of these worthies, with a customary ex- 
ception of well-dressed people and carriers of parcels and 
letters, whose claims to immimity, however, are sometimes 
forgotten. Resentment is vain, always ending in two blows 
to one, a black face, yellow trowsers, &c., from the rabble. 

PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Public amusement is scantily provided for in Funchal. 
When you have mentioned the Portuguese club, in which 
a ball is held once a month; and to which a bilUard-room 
is attached, you have almost come to an end of the list of 
places of resort. The English have established a subscription 
library, where many popular and standard works are to be 
found, together with the common periodicals and newspapers 
of the day. The subscription is high, but the luxury you pay 
for is great. A subscriber is allowed to take books home 
with him to read. The Portuguese Commercial Rooms, to 
which English are admitted to subscribe, are likewise pro- 
vided with newspapers. 

Theatricals have sometimes been attempted in the Funchal 
theatre house, but they have always proved fedlures. In the 
Portuguese language there are few good plays ; good play 
writing, and good acting, as well as a favourable reception of 



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CHAP, n.] PARTIES. 36 

both by the public, are rarely met with in Portugal or her 
colonies. 

PABTIES. 

The hospitality of Madeira merchants is proverbial. They 
give many pleasant parties and balls for the entertainment of 
their friends, and all is done that kindness and consideration 
can do to make people forget the distance at which they are 
from their homes. Funchal parties are not generally in- 
fected with the contagion of the late hours of London. It is 
practicable to unite sociability with prudence, and retire to 
rest at a moderate hour. For those who are seeking health, 
however, the wisest course is to go out as little as possible at 
night. The English and Portuguese do not mix often to- 
gether in society, and there is consequently very little to 
remind you that you are living amongst foreigners. Such in- 
tercourse, however, as you hold with the Portuguese is agree- 
able, from their civility, good-nature, and absence of pride. 



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i 

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CHAPTER III. 

ON THE CLIMATE AND VITAL STATISTICS OP BtADEIBA. 

** Ah! what arail the largest gifts of Heayen, 
When drooping health and spirits go amiss? 
How tasteless then whatever can be given! 
Health is the vital principle of bliss." 

Thoxsok. 

Climate. — Tables of Tempeiatnre — of Bain. — Deluges. — Bainy season. — 
L'Est^. — Clouds. — Sunset — Snow.— Dampness. — Summer. — Longevity. 
— Population. — Emigration. 

The mean temperature of Funchal throughout the year may 
be stated at 66 degrees of Fahrenheit, February and March 
bemg the coldest, August and September the hottest months. 
Even between these months there is not a greater mean 
difference of temperature than 12 degrees*. It is this 
uniformity in which the excellence of the climate consists. 
The causes which are instrumental in forming such a climate 
in Funchal are threefold : firstly, the lofty hills which imme- 
diately surround it on the north completely shelter it from 
the weather at all the points of the compass, except from 
south-east to south-west; secondly, the absence of wood, 
whilst it impairs its beauty, improves its climate ; and, thirdly, 
the regularity of the alternations of the land and sea 
breezes tends to preserve a delicious equability of tempe- 
rature. 

* It is not &ir to estimate the climate of a country merely by its mean 
annual temperature; we should look rather to the distribution of heat through 
the different months of the year : Humboldt has shown that the isochimenalt 
and isotherals (lines of equal winter and summer temperature) are by no 
means parallel with the itothermaU (lines of equal annual temperature). 



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CHAP. m. TABLES OF TEMPEBATURE. — HEBEBDEN. 39 

Dr. Heberden*8 account of monthly maxima and minima 
of temperature in Madeira, as observed a century ago, shows 
an amount of variation similarly small. 







Anho 1749. 








Arao 1750 








Barometer. | 


Thermometer. 


Barometer. 


Thermometer. 


M. H. 


O. H. 1 I» H. 


M. H. O.H. 


L.H. 


M. H. j O. H. 


I..H . 


M.H. 


O.H. 


L. H. 

62- 
61- 
61- 
65- 
65- 
66- 

T^i 

7^ 
67* 
64- 


January .. 
February . 
March.... 
April 

J^y 

June 

July 

August... 

October .. 
November 
December 


29-81 

30-075 

29-55 

30-017 

30-027 

30-013 

30i)54 

29-841 

29-68 

29*675 


30-2 

30-2 

30-1 

30-15 

30-1 

30-1 

30-15 

30- 

30- 

29-9 


29-8 

298 

29-6 

2975 

29-95 

29-95 

29-85 

29-55 
29-4 


64-66 

607 

66-53 

6875 

74-58 

75-07 

^ 

68-6 
64-9 


Z 

69- 
72- 

??; 

^; 

73- 
68- 


61- 
64- 
65- 
64- 

72- 
68- 
67- 
62- 


29-195 
29-692 
29-12 
29-285 
29-V75 
29-875 
29-887 
29-386 
29-915 
29797 
'29-875 
29-843 


29-8 

2975 

29-65 

29-4 

29-9 

30-1 

29-96 

301 

30-05 

29-9 

30-05 

30-2 


29-4 64- 
29-5 63-8 
29-3 66-5 
29-1 66-45 
29-5 66-25 
29-5 6906 
29-8 73- 
2975 75-4 
297 74-93 
29-5 73-87 
29-56 70-825 
29-7 66-27 


68- 
67- 

g: 

68- 
72- 



Dr. Heberden's Tables. FhiL Trans., x. abr., 1751, 282. 

•• Dr. Heberden goes on to give the mean height of the 
barometer and thermometer at Funchal for each month of 
the years 1761, 1752, 1753, which have but very small 
differences and changes. 

" By collecting the respective sums of the daily heights of 
the instruments throughout the year, and extracting the meim 
altitude, it is found that the mean altitude of the barometer 
for each day is 29*915 inches, and of the thermometer 
68°-918. The greatest thermometrical variation during the 
said time has been 20°, viz., from 60° to SO""; but it may be 
observed that it never rose so high but once, occasioned by a 
very strong L'Este, or Levant wind, the extreme height, 
without such an accident, being never more than 78°." 



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40 



TABLES OF TEMPERATURE. — ^MASON. 



[OHAP. lit 



Dr. Mason's work famishes the following data for the years 
1834-1836 :— 



1834 and 1835. 


Meuu 


Mom 
maximum. 


Mean 


Mean 

monthly 

range. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Ex- 

treme 
range. 


January ... 
February . . 
March 

^1?.:::::: 

June 

July 

August ... 
September . 
October ... 
November . 
December. . 




60-24 
61-12 
63-43 
65-89 
67-97 
69-44 
71-68 
72-78 
72-16 
69-49 
65-45 
64-25 


63-23 
64-75 
68-39 
70-46 
72-60 
73-16 
76-06 
76-98 
76-00 
73-06 
68-70 
66-80 


67-26 
67-60 
58-48 
60-33 
63-35 
65-73 
68-28 
68-64 
68'82 
65-93 
62-20 
61-71 


6-97 
7-26 
9-81 
10-13 
9-26 
7-43 
6-77 
8-29 
7-68 
7-18 
6-60 
6-09 


65' 
69' 
71- 
75- 

77-6 
SO- 
SO- 
SO- 
79- 
77- 
73- 
72- 




65- 

66- 

63-5 

58- 

61- 

63- 

66- 

66' 

66- 

62- 

57- 

65- 


10- 

14- 

17-5 

17- 

16-6 

17- 

14- 

14- 

13- 

16- 

16- 

17- 



Mean daily and nightly range throughout the year. 



1834 and 1835. 




III 


1 


n 
111 


ii 

So 

Hi 


i 


Is 


Winter 




68-66 
74-60 
80-00 
76-88 


o 

61-00 
65-00 
71-83 
68-00 


o 

7-66 
9-60 
8-67 
8'33 


o 

6266 
63-66 
71-16 
69-16 


5500 
67-60 
66-00 
61-66 


7-66 
6-16 
6-16 
7-60 


o 

13-66 
17-00 
16-00 
14-67 


SDrinflT 


Summer ......... 


Autumn ......... 




Year 


74-87 


66-33 


8-54 


66-66 


69-79 


6-87 


15-08 





In the winter of 1847-8 the Rev. W. V. Harcourt made a 
series of ohservations at a house near the Pontinha, ahout 
eighty feet above the sea, which may be very advantageously 
compared with a parallel series for the same period at Pau 
observed by Professor Donkin. The following are the deduc- 



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CHAP.III.J 



HARCOUBT S. — DONKIN S. 



41 



tions from these series, as corrected by Ford from the data 
which Mr. Glaisher has supplied :- 



Deductions from Memoranda of the Temperature of Madeira^ made by the 
Ebv. W. V. Habooxtrt. 



1847. 
November 
December ... 

1848. 
January... 
February 

March 

April 



Is 

h 



69-3 
660 

63-3 
64-4 
65-3 
66-3 



I 



68-7 
67-2 

54-0 
66-2 
63-4 
640 



64-0 
61-5 

68-6 
59-8 
59-3 
60-2 



63-6 
61-5 

68-4 
69-4 
68-8 

58-7 



I 









5 

II 



Deductions from Memoranda of Temperature made at Fau by 
Fbofessob Domkin, 







1 


•?; 


-6 




& 


e 


i 


1 




S 


S 


fl 


S 


1847. November... 


3 


gs 


X 


1 


47-2 


63-3 


62 


33 


„ December ... 


411 


48-0 


59 


27 


1848. Janiuiry 


33-3 


380 


57 


23 


„ February ... 


43-1 


60-9 


70 


29 


„ March 


43-9 


50-9 


60 


38 


Anril 


63-7 


59-4 


65 


45 





From these tables we find that the mean of the six months 
at Madeira is 59*9, and the mean of the six months at Pan is 
43-7. 



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42 



RAIN. 



[crap. ui. 



RAIN. 

According to the authors of the "Physical Atlas," the mean 
annual quantity of rain that fiEdls at Funchal is 29-82 inches, 
of which 48 per cent, fells in the winter, 17 per cent, in the 
spring, 4 per cent, in the summer, and 31 per cent, in the 
autumn. The rain that falls in the mountainous parts of Eng- 
land, which is nearly double of what fells in the plains, stands 
thus, by comparison : — 40-69 inches fall annually, of which 
26 per cent, falls in the winter, 1 9 per cent, in the sprii^, 26 
per cent, in the summer, and 30 per cent, in the autumn. 

The following Table of Observations by Dr. Heberden 
shows the quantity of rain which fell at Funchal in the years 
1747, 1748, 1749, J 750:— 





An. 1747. 


1748. 


1749. 


1750. 


Inch. Dec 


Inch. Dec. 


Inch. Dec 


Inch. Dec 


January 

February ... 
March 


20-626 
•486 

4-339 
•628 
•363 

1-321 
•200 
•018 
•640 
•010 

6-181 

7-361 


8-600 

10-968 

6-241 

•722 

•420 

2-700 
•810 
8^303 
2-664 
1-600 


2^097 

1-203 

•932 

•777 

6-290 

-113 

•866 
1-612 
3-069 
6-627 


M60 

1^771 

1-123 

•039 

1-087 

•226 

•176 

•003 

1-682 

6-601 

6-611 

1-882 


April 


May .....:.:. 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Total ...... 


40-851 


37-608 


22-366 


27-361 



Dr. Heberden's Table. 



Dr. Heberden says, "The years 1749 and 1760 were such 
dry years that the com was destroyed, and the fruit trees 
suffered much, particularly the peach trees ; the fruit either 
falling to the ground whilst green, or, if it remained longer 



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CHAP. III.] 



RAIN. 



43 



on the tree, being full of white worms. The quantity of rain 
which fell in the seven years from 1747 to 1763 inclusive, 
amounts to 214*346 inches. Therefore the mean quantity 
for each year is 30*62." 

Dr. Mason's Observations give the following quantities for 
J 834, 1835 :~ 



1834 and 1835. 


Day. 


Night. 


Days on 

which 

thunder 

oocuired. 


Days' 
rain. 


Hours' 
rain. 


'SilL''" 


Hours' 
rain. 


Janiiarv 


14 
9 
8 

10 
2 
6 
7 
8 
5 

10 
. 18 

10 


74 

21 

82 

68 

24 

40 

6 

5 

25 

103 

79 

56 


6 

1 
5 
5 
2 
2 

1 
4 
7 
18 
10 


45 

12 

46 

89 

22 

21 



2 

42 

93 

108 

111 


2 

8 
8 

1 


February 


March 


April 


May :::;::;;::::::: 


Jane 


July 


, ^ 

August 


September 


October 


November 


December 





Days. 


1834-1835. 


Whiter. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Year. 


Days rainy .. 
Hours rainy. . 


33 
151 = 127 


19 
119 = 9-11 


16 
51 = 4-3 


33 
207=17-3 


101 
528 = 44-0 


Nights. 


NighU rainy . 
Houis rainy. . 


17 
168 = 14-0 


11 
107 = 8-11 


3 
23=1-11 


24 
243 = 20-3 


55 
541=45-1 



Great inequalities, however, subsist between one year and 
another at Madeira in the distribution of the rain through 
the seasons, though the general average does not much differ. 
The amount of that which falls in the mountains is unknown. 
In comparing the climate with those of more northern lati- 
tudes it must be remembered that the frequency of the rain 
here bears no proportion to its amount ; Dr. Macaulay has 
computed that whilst it rains in London 178 days in the 



1 



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X 



44 DELUGES. — ^BAINY SEASON. fcHAP. m. 

year, in Funchal it rains bat 73 days *. The seasons in 
which the least rain falls in winter are not those that are 
considered the most healthy ; such winters are often followed 
by wet springs ; the earth having been thoroughly baked and 
heated by the previous drought yields a copious evaporation 
when the rain comes, and this is presumed to render the 
atmosphere more trying to delicate subjects. 

DELUGES. 

About once in every twenty-five years the island is subject 
to deluges, which do great damage to the country. In 1803 
there was a flood of this nature : the water came down with 
fio much violence as to give rise to the conjecture that a 
water-spout had broken over the mountains. Whole houses 
were washed into the sea with their inmates, and upwards of 
five hundred souls were said to have perished in Funchal 
alone. The church of N. S. do Oalhao was swept away, and 
the damage done to property was very great. Those who 
were in the mountains fled to the city, and those in the 
city fled to the mountains : dismay was on every countenance, 
and the inhabitants thought the end of the world was surely 
come. On such occasions the water rolls downr the ravines 
in torrents, carrying in its course vast masses of rock that no 
other power could move, short of an earthquake ; the noise is 
so tremendous, that, standing near these rapids, you cannot 
hear your neighbour speak, even if he puts his mouth to 
your ear. 

BAINY SEASON. 

What is called the rainy season occurs generally in the 
autumn and early spring, and lasts about three weeks ; even 

^ Edinbiugh New Philosophical Journal, Oct| 1840. 



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CHAP. 1II.J L^ESTS. 15 

then you can always get out of doors for some part of the day. 
When the wind is in the north and east there is seldom much 
rain ; if the wind goes round to the west hy the south, a con- 
tinuance of wet may be expected, but if by the north, it soon 
veers round again, and there is not much rain. 

l'este. 

Madeira has its Sirocco, called by the natives L^EstS, a 
term expressive of the quarter from which the wind blows. 
It bears so near a resemblance to the easterly wind known on 
the opposite coast by the name of HarmaUarty in its chief 
peculiarities, that we may conclude it owes them to a similar 
origin : like it, hot and dry, it is yet not insalubrious*. In- 
valids find relief from its influence, though it is felt oppres- 
sive by persons in health. It produces a parching of the 
skin, and even curls up paper and the binding of books. If 
you try to escape it by ascending the hills, you fitid it unmiti- 
gated, and of the same hot, dry, relaxing quality. Meat and 
milk will not keep whilst it lasts. Even in the hills, in 
winter, and at an early hour of the morning, the thermo- 
meter oftcjn- stands at upwards of 70 degrees Fahrenheit 
in the shade. In the summer of 1860 Dr. Lund observed 
the thermometer stand at 91° F., at Santo Antonio da Serra, 

* A corioiu example of the benign influence of the VEtU is given in an 
account of the awful visitation of cholera during this year (1851) in the 
Grand Canary, communicated by Mr. Houghton, H.B.M. Yice-Oonsul, and 
which appeared in the "Times" of July 16. Mr. Houghton writes, "The 
deaths during the night have materially declined in number, and it is said 
that many of those who were in a desperate state overnight show symptoms 
of improvement. I must here mention, that since the middle of the night 
the weather has changed. We have now what is called here ' a levante/ 
being a hot dry wind." 



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46 CLOUDS. [CRAP. III. 

in the shade. Dr. Heberden*s ohservations on the VEsU, 
Oct 20, 1760, are as follows:— 

Hours 10, 12, 4, Thermometer within doors, 73, 76, 77. 
Do. exposed to the air, 81, 82, 77. 

In the VEstk of 1860, on the 28th of February, Mason's 
hygrometer showed 18 degr^s of dryness. It is invariably 
accompanied by a haze, though less dense than that which 
is said to characterize the Harmattan't^. The cause of this 
haze is not known, though it may probably be due to the 
minute particles of red sand, which, when this wind blows 
strong, may be seen plentifully deposited. Many curious 
birds are blown over from the African coast by the UEst6, 
of which the ordinary direction is, by the compass, E.S.E. 
It generally lasts about three, six, or nine days. After the 
wind ceases rain almost invariably follows. 

CLOUDS. 

The clouds are so regular in their movements that it seems 
as if these might be reduced to rule. Early in the morning, 
the tops of the hills are generally clear; later in the day, 
light clouds make their appearance, which presently unite, 
generally to separate again, and break into those varied shapes 
and masses which enhance so greatly the beauty of the 
scenery.^ At night£all the bank of clouds usually forms again, 

• The nature of the HarmcUtan, of the Simoom, and of the Sirocco^ is 
sufficiently well known ; Josephus Acosta, lib. iii., cap. 9, mentions a wind 
which he experienced in India in these words : — " The iron gates were 
so rusted and consumed by a peculiar wind, that pressing the metal be- 
tween your fingers, it would be dissolved and crumbled, as if it Bad been 
hay or parched straw." 



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t:^ 



CHAP. 1II.J SUNSET. — SNOW. — ^DAMPNESS. 47 

to be again gradually cleared away, leaving the nights bright 
and lucid. 

SUNSET. 

An opinion prevails that exposure to the air at sunset 
is dangerous to those who are in delicate health. The ther- 
mometer shows no sudden change of temperature at that 
time ; but it is possible that the loss of the direct rays of the 
sun may induce a chill on sensitive frames, and justify a 
medical caution. 

The stars seem to have an unusual clearness in Madeira : 
over the sea not many are distinctly visible, owing to the mist 
which always at night hangs over the horizon. That beautiful 
phenomenon the lunar rainbow is often seen to great per- 
fection. 

SNOW. 

In the months of December, January, February, or March, 
the hills, as low down as three thousand feet from their 
summits, are sometimes visited by snow, though it rarely lies 
on the ground above two, or, at most, ten days at a time. 
There is a large pit dug and covered over at the top of one of 
the peaks, which has derived its name of the ice-house peak 
from the use it is put to. Here the snow or hail is collected, 
and hence the luxury of an ice is to be obtained in the pastry- 
cook's shops at any time of the year. In Funchal, however, 
frost is unknown : a fire is seldom requisite to guard against 
either cold or damp. 

DAMPNESS. 

Whatever may be the moisture of the air, it is not sensible 
as dampness to the feelings, and is certainly not unfavourable 



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48 8U10DSB. [cHAP.ni. 

to the healthy action of the lungs. The &Qlt, in this re- 
spect, found with many hot climates is a searching and 
irritating dryness, and in England it has been found ne- 
cessary to temper the diy air of rooms, artificially warmed, by 
the introduction of vapour. There may be spots in Madeira, 
either near yam grounds where much irrigation is carried on, 
or where the soil or rock, usually very porous, is so close as to 
retain the wet, which may be too humid for some constitu- 
tions; but, for the greater part, in the neighbourhood of 
Funchal, there is no visible excess of moisture : there is no 
fog, and there is comparatively but little dew. If dampness 
has ever been alleged as an objection to the salubrity of this 
bland, it must be regarded as a complaint due to the unlucky 
choice of some dwelling-house unfavourably placed, or to the 
common fastidiousness of ill-health. 

« The Terdant rifmg and the flowery hill, 
The vale enamell'd, and the crystal rill. 
The ocean rolling, and the shelly shore, 
Beantifol objects, shall delight no more. 
When the lax'd sinews of the weaken*d eye 
In watery damps or dim snffiision lie.^ 

No one now, I believe, thinks that climate can heal a 
deep-rooted complaint; it may arrest incipient disease; it 
may, and does, assuage the sufferings of many whom it 
cannot cure. In extreme cases, it would, indeed, often 
be but useless cruelty to bring the invalid to die at a 
distance from his natural home ; yet there are instances 
in which, beyond expectation, patients have been kept alive 
by so benignant a climate after they had been all but given 
over by the faculty for many years. The dying invalid has 
here all that climate can do; the patient can be carried out in 
his hammock, and draw the pure air of heaven with his last 



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^W9*^* I I M " I ^ ' J", . * ' P' 



CHAP. III.] SUMMEB. - 49 

breath. The cases in which Madeira does real good are those 
in which a person whose lungs are threatened, or incipiently 
diseased, repairs thither immediately, and follows out ra- 
tionally the mode of life prescribed by his doctor, is at home 
by sunset, abstains from going out to parties at night, does 
not expose himself to the alternations of weather, to ex- 
citement, or fatigue : then, with God's blessing, the hand of 
death is often stayed, the constitution is invigorated, and care 
and time work out what climate had begun. It is marvel- 
lous to see how some people will go to Madeira, as if for their 
health, and live there in a way which must make the best 
climate in the world useless. 

SUMMEB. 

The summer in Madeira is said to do the invalid even more 
good than the winter. No one thinks of remaining in Fun- 
chal during this season. The residents generally move up to 
the high lands in the beginning of June, and go down again 
to the town, for the winter, in the beginning of October. 
Certain it is, that the benefit of a winter in Madeira is often 
neutralized by the subsequent summer spent in England. 
This of course must depend in some degree upon the season. 
Perhaps our changeable climate, even at its best, is irritating 
to a system spoilt for it by one so much its superior, till the 
recovery of health is confirmed by a residence in Madeira 
of sufficient duration to have rendered it proof against sudden 
changes. There is perhaps no country in the world, enjoying 
so much warmth in the winter as Madeira, which is also blest 
by the absence of oppressive heat in the summer *. 

• Prosper Alpiniu, lib. i., cap. 6, in his treatise De Medicina jEgi/ptiorum, 
tells ns that at Grand Cairo, where he practised medicine, though that city is 
iiz degrees distant from the tropics, the air in summer is almost insapport- 
ably hot, and in winter sometimes very cold. 

D 



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60 LONGEVITY. [chap. in. 

LONGEVITY. 

Judging from the registrar's return of deaths in Madeira, 
one would say the people are comparatively short lived. 
There are reasons for this peculiar to the native popula- 
tion, and not leading to any just inference against the healthi- 
ness of the climate when fairly tested. The inhabitants are 
poorly fed, poorly clothed, and hard- worked. At the age when 
most nourishment is required, least is often obtained. The 
growing child frequently lives on cabbage broth. The natives 
are also subject, from their habits, to very sudden alterna- 
tions of temperature, and to exposure to wet and cold, from 
which the kind of garments that they wear is a poor pro- 
tection. Men, women, and children, having been employed 
from sunrise in collecting fuel, amid soaking mists and pierc- 
ing blasts in the mountains, carry down their burdens, under 
the heat of a mid-day sun, into the warm town for sale, and 
then return to their cold mountain dwellings. What consti- 
tution could stand this long ? and, when insufficient feeding 
is added, is it to be wondered at, that few attain to an advanced 
age ? By studying the returns it will be found that there is 
less longevity, in proportion, in the northern and colder parts 
of the island; and the parish of Santa Anna, which is remark- 
able for mist and rain, is remarkable also for a shorter average 
of life. The clothing, too, is of the scantiest nature ; it is 
never varied in proportion to heat, cold, or damp, and the 
wretched huts in which the people live are ill calculated to 
keep out the weather *. 

* Hear the words of the Governor of Madeira, speaking of the labouring 
classes : — " At the age of sixty the constitution generally breaks down, few 
are able to work at seventy, and many, in the country districts, are entirely 
incapacitated for labour at fifty. In the city and villages it is rare to see the 
physical and intellectual powers impaired by premature hard work ; in the 
country, however, you meet with many examples of mis-shapen people, 



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CHAP. III.] POPULATION. 61 

Put out of the question that disease over which no climate 
has any control, namely, want, and Madeira is very healthy. 
It is free from most of the distempers which scourge hot 
countries, and those which are virulent in more northern 
latitudes only appear there in the mildest forms. Diseases 
imported from other countries, such as small pox, scarlet 
fever, measles, &c., have at various times had their run 
here, but never remained long. Quarantine regulations 
are sometimes very strictly, and to visitors somewhat vexa- 
tiously, carried out *. The cholera has not as yet reached 
this island. 

POPULATION. 

The population, according to the census of 1835, was 
115,446. In one made in 1743 the number of persons 
returned as seven years old and upwards was 48,234, from 
which it was inferred by Dr. Heberden that the total number 

whose growth premature bodily labour has either stunted or distorted, ex- 
tending its &tal effects through the whole of their, generally, short existence." 
* Experience in the Canary Islands seems to justify such caution. Mr. 
Houghton says, in his letter, " You are aware that during the prevalence of 
this epidemic in Burope, even when it reached Cadiz, these islands, as well 
as Madeira, were preserved intact. The usual course of the winds is from 
that direction ; there has been no change noted in this respect within these 
last months. The cholera has latterly been making great ravages in the 
West Indies, a position diametrically opposed to the current of the air. It 
appears, therefore, almost impossible that we should have received the germ 
ojf this destroyer simply through the atmosphere. The credited reports 
here tend to a contrary opinion. About the 8th or 9th of May a vessel 
arrived from Havannah with a clean bill of health, and was consequently 
admitted to pratique without any preliminary fumigation. It is said that 
the first house in San Jose (a suburb principally inhabited by poor people) 
in which this disease made its appearance was that of a washerwoman who 
had taken the mattress and foul clothes of one of the poorer passengers to 
wash, and that her children slept upon them during the night. Death soon 
followed ; one neighbour after another was attacked ; the seed had found its 
appropriate soil, and slowly, but too surely, germinated, and when the air 
was sufficiently contaminated its &tal effects were generalized." 

D 2 



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62 POPULATION. [CHAP. m. 

in that year was 53,057. The people, therefore, have little 
more than doubled themselves in a centoiy. When we con- 
sider that in our own countiy the populi^on has doubled 
itself in about half that period, and that our increase is con- 
siderably slower not only than that of the New World, but of 
many of the anciently-peopled countries of Europe, and when 
we consider also the general healthiness of the climate of 
Madeira, and the small amount of emigration which, till the 
year 1835, has occurred there, this must appear an extra- 
ordinary circumstance *. 

Dr. Heberden, in 1767, reasoning from the census of that 
year as compared with the returns of 1748, conceived that 
the duplicate proportion would have been reached in eighty- 
four years t; but it appears that in the following year the 
population, instead of increasing, diminished from 64,614 
to 63,913. In that year it is stated | that 2198 children 
were bom, and that 5243 persons died. In 1835, 4102 
births were registered, and 2751 deaths, making an increase 
in the population of 1351 souls. In 1839, 4671 were bom 
and 3962 died ; the increase therefore was 709. In 1843, 4627 
were bom and 2883 died; the increase was 1744. In 1847, 
3452 were bom and 3252 died; the increase was 200. In 
1849, 3988 were bom and 2293 died ; the increase was 1695 §. 

* Malthns, writiog in 1803, (book iii. chap. zi. p. 476,) sayi, " If we 
could obtain accontte bills of mortality in those sonthem countries, where 
yery few women remain unmarried, and all marry young, the proportion of 
annual deaths would be 1 in 17, 18, or 20, instead of 1 in 34, 86, or 40, as 
in European states.*' 

+ PhU. Trans., xii abr. 1767, 475. 

t Forttei^t Voyage rotmd the World, under Capt Cook, 1792, vol I p. 16. 
§ Okhsus taksh IK 1767. 



Christened in 8 years . 17,611 
Buried „ , 10,351 



Medium for each year 2,201| 
. l,298f 



Octennial increase 7,260 j Annual mcrease 907| 



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CHAP. III.J 



POPULATION. 



63 



It should seem from these particulars that there are periods 
of excessive mortality, which, amongst other causes, have 



Froportioii of the yearly births to the number of persons^ as 1 to 29*35 
,i „ bnrials . . . . as 1 to 49*89 

„ births to burials . . . . as 100 to 68*77 

„ males bom to females .... as 100 to 96*39 

,t females buried to males . . . .as 108*33 to 100 

Weddings each year at a medium 470f 

Proportion^of weddings to births as 1 to 4*68 

„ „ burials . . . . as 1 to 2*75 

The mortality of spring and summer to that of autumn 

and winter as 115 to 100 



Census takin in 1835. 
Population of Madeira . 
,, Porto Santo 



Total 



Births 
Deaths 



Increase of Population 

Gbnsus taken in 1839. 
Population of Madeira . 
„ Porto Santo 

Total 



Births 
Deaths 



Increase of Population 



Census taken in 1843. 
Population of Madeira . 
., Porto Santo 



Total 



Births 
Deaths 



Increase of Population 



113,828 
1,618 

115,446 

4,102 
2,751 

1,351 



114,147 
1,614 

115,761 

4,671 
8,962 

709 



117,872 
1,669 

119,041 

4,627 
2,883 

1,744 



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54 



EMIGRATION. 



[CHAP. UI. 



kept down the populatioD. What may have been the cause, 
in 1768, of the decrease of population, is not recorded ; 
but in 1839 the greater mortality is to be attributed to 
small pox, and in 1847 to the fjEunine which then visited the 
island. 

Under these circumstances, the policy of the Government 
appears to have been rather to repress than encourage emi- 
gration ; and the fees exacted before a licence to emigrate can 
be obtained are very large. When the great demand for 
labour in Demerara occasioned the offer of a considerable 
premium to volunteers from Madeira, many of the young 
men were tempted to leave their families, and were sur- 
reptitiously smuggled on board the emigrant ships. These 
emigrants are reported to have made excellent labourers ; but 
it is said also, that, overworking themselves under a tropical 
sun, they contracted the diseases of a climate in which the 
negro alone is capable of enduring much labour, and died by 



Cnravs TAMMM a 1847. 



Population of Madeira . 
„ Porto Santo 



Total 



Births 
Deatha 



Increase of Population 
Census takut hi 1849. 



Population of Madeira . 
,, Porto Santo 



Total 



Births 
Deaths 



Increase of Population 



104,747 
1,739 

106,486 

8,452 
8,252 

200 



108,274 
1,810 

110,084 

8,988 
2,298 

1,695 



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CHAP. 111.] EMIGEATION. 66 

hundreds. Of the survivors, some went to America, some 
returned to their own country, and some, withdrawing 
themselves from the fields, proved very serviceable in other 
works about the town and wharfs. The first emigration, 
as has been before observed, took place in the year 1836, dur- 
ing which year about 1200 persons left Madeira. Emigration 
then ceased for a time, till the year 1840, when it was 
vigorously resumed. At the end of the year 1847 it again 
ceased. Government returns state that up to this time 
6436 persons had emigrated, that is to say, that 6436 persons 
had paid the heavy emigration fees ; perhaps three or four 
times that number actually left the country. During the years 
1848 and 1849 there was scarcely any emigration; but in 
June, 1860, a premium, though a lower one, was again 
offered, and emigration recommenced actively. The Madeira 
Government, finding it could not stop the evil, as they 
supposed it to be, made a remission, though to a trifling 
extent, of the fees on emigration. It is estimated that, from 
1836 to the present time, nearly 36,000 persons have gone 
from Madeira to Demerara, St. Vincent, Antigua, Trinidad, 
Grenada, Jamaica, and St. Kitt's. 



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CHAPTEB IV. 



THE HISTOBT, GOVERNMENT, AND MANNERS 



MADEIRA. 




Frmm, a Sketch by Lady Susan kernon Uarcourt. 

Group of Peasants. 



See page 90. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

ON THE HISTORY, GOVERNMENT, AND MANNERS OP MADEIRA. 

" Th' historic Muse, from age to age, 
Through many a waste, heartHdckening page. 
Hath traced the works of man." 

Kbblb. 

Ancient history. — Be-discoyery of Madeira.-»Oape Bojador. — Columbus. — 
History of Machim. — Governors appointed. — Allotment of land. — Original 
government — Death of Zarco. — Funchal constituted a city. — ^Invasion 
by French privateers. — Madeira passes into the dominion of Spain. — 
English possession. — Dom Miguel. — Ecclesiastical afi^rs. — Bishop ap- 
pointed. — Ecclesiastical courts. — Salary of the clergy. — Diocese of Fun- 
chal.—- Monastic establishments. — ^Beligious societies. — Places of educa- 
tion. — Public institutions.— Judicial division of Madeira. — Oivil governor. 
— Judges. — Criminals. — Laws of inheritance. — Public revenues. — Go- 
vernment monopolies. — Military afibirs. — Roads. — Elections. — Habita- 
tions of the poor. — Dress. — Beauty. — Manufsictures. 

ANCIENT HISTORY. 

It does not appear that any of the islands which lie on the 
western coast of Africa, at a distance from the Continent, 
were certainly known to the ancients till about the com- 
mencement of the Christian era, Strabo blamed the Alex- 
andrian geographer, Eratosthenes, for having given credit to 
fahuioua tales concerning an island named Ceme^ supposed to 
have been discovered beyond the pillars of Hercules in an 
exploring expedition of the Carthaginians, conducted by 
Hanno *, and though there seems no reason to doubt that the 

• The voyage of Hanno, according to Dodwell (Dissert de Peripli Han- 
nonis^ tom. i. edit. Oxon.), took place at some time between the 92nd and 
129th Olympiad. 

D 3 



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58 ANCIENT H18T0BT. [chap. nr. 

AMcan shores were explored hi to the southward by that 
leader, who, on his return, as Pliny tells us, hung up in the 
temple of Saturn a register of his discoveries ; and, more- 
over, in the temple of Juno, as evidence of their truth, two 
skins of female Oorgons covered with hair, which remained 
there till the destruction of Carthage ; yet the Greek account 
of this voyage, which has come down to us is so mixed with 
fiction, and accords so ill with the known geography of the 
coast, that Strabo did but show the usual soundness of his 
judgment in rejecting its authority. After the fall of Carthage 
a survey of these seas was undertaken by the Roman general, 
historian, and geographer, Polybius, who likewise found an 
island, to which he assigned the name of Ceme ; but it was 
one which lay not more than a mile from the shore. 

By the time, however, that Augustus CsBsar ruled the 
Roman Empire, when that literary sovereign governed the 
kingdoms of Mauritania, of whom it was said that he was 
** still more memorable for the renown of his studies than for 
the extent of his dominions," the fragments which remain of 
his geographical delineations prove that both the Canary and 
the Madeira Islands were then distinctly known. 

" Juba," says Pliny, " has given this as the result of his 
investigations concerning the Fortunate Islands, that they are 
situate in the south, towards the west, 320 miles from the 
Purple Islands, so as that the navigation lies for 260 miles 
above the sunset (t. e, south-west); then for 70 miles the 
course is eastward. The first island, called Ombrion, has no 
traces of buildings. On its hills is a piece of standing water. 
It bears trees resembling a, ferula, from which is expressed a 
water, bitter from the black species, but from those of a 
whiter colour pleasant to drink. Another island is called 
Junonia, and on it there is one little building of stone. 



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CHAP. IV.] ANCIENT HISTORY. 59 

Near this is a smaller island of the same name. Then Ca- 
praria, full of great lizards. In sight of them is Nivaria, 
taking its name from perpetual snow, and covered with clouds. 
Next to that, Canaria, so called from a multitude of dogs of 
great size, two of which were brought to Juba ; and traces of 
habitations appear there. As they all abound in plenty of 
apples, and birds of every kind, so this abounds in date- 
bearing palms, and in the nut of the pine tree J" 

No one who is acquainted with the snow-capped and cloudy 
peak of Teneriffe, the date-palms, and the pine trees with 
edible nuts, still growing in that island, and who remembers 
that at the time of the Spanish invasion flocks of goats 
formed the chief possessions of the Guanches, and that the 
dwelling of that people, according to the Spanish authors, 
was, in general, not in houses, but in the rocks, can fail to 
recognise the Canaries in this description. But if we are 
certain that the Fortunate Islands of Juba are the same with 
our Canaries, in that case it is impossible not to identify also 
his Purple Islands with our Madeiras, For the course and 
distance here stated of ^0 miles south westerly, would bring 
a vessel to the most western of the Canaries, whilst the 70 
miles from Madeira, easterly course, would sweep a great part 
of the remainder of the group. 

We are further informed » by Pliny that these Purple 
Islands, also called by him the Mauritanian Islands, were 
" over against the Autotoles," opposite, that is, to the western 
coast of Morocco, that they were " few in number," that they 
were " discovered by Juba," and that he had projected the 
carrying on in them a manufacture for dying the Goetulian 
purple : hence, doubtless, the name of the Purple Islands. 
Whether any of the various shell-fish from which the much- 
prized Goetulian purple was extracted frequent the shores of 



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60 ANOIXlfT HI8T0BT. [chap.it. 

the Madeiras it might be worth while to inquire "^ ; but in the 
meanwhile, supposing such mateiiab for dyeing not to exist 
there, it might not be improbable that Juba*s traders had 
found on the rocks of the Dezertas the plant which furnishes 
us at this day with the most beautiful purples, the Orchil, or 
Lachmus tinetorius. That loomed king, we know, was a 
curious inquirer into the properties of plants, for it is men- 
tioned by Pliny that it was he who discovered the Euphorhium 
in the vicinity of Mount Atlas, and recommended it as a 
collyrium for the eyes, and it seems likely enough that he 
may have speculated on substituting the fine violet dye of the 
vegetable Orchil for that of the animal Purpura. 

It is probable that the " Eryihia" or Bed Island of 
Ptolemy, may have owed its name to the same circumstance 
which gave their denomination to the " Purple Islands " of 
Pliny, and may have been regarded as one of them. The 
latitude of 39 degrees, assigned by Ptolemy to this island, 
agrees best with that of the Salvages ; whilst the latitude of 
32 degrees, which his tables give for the island " Patna*' 
(to be read, perhaps, Poina, i. e, Punica), corresponds per- 
fectly with that of Madeira; and this ancient geographer 
seems, therefore, only to have misplaced these islands, so far 
as their longitude is concerned, in assigning to Eiythia that 
of 7 degrees, and to Poena of 6 degrees, an error apparently 
due to his having fixed his first meridian, though the most 
westerly of the Fortunaie Isles, a few degrees too far to the 
westward. 

* If any species of Manx or Buccinum can be found on these sb(»M, it 
should be carefully examined for the green juice described by ancient au- 
thors, which, on exposure to air, turns first to liUbc, and then to a red 
purple* 



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CHAP. lY.J BE-DISOOYEBT OF MADEIBA. 61 



BE-DISGOYEBT OF MADEIBA. 

Under the Eoman rule, after the fell of Carthage, all com- 
munication with the Atlantic Islands ceased, and it was re- 
served for the great Dom Henry* to re-establish the com- 
munication of Europe with the Madeiras. Cordeyro, in his 
Historia Insrdana f, says that some attribute the discovery of 
Porto Santo to certain Frenchmen and Spaniards, but he 
gives no credit to the tale. 

Prince Henry, fourth | son of King John (of Portugal), in 
trying his fortune against the Moors, having made ac- 
quaintance with Morocco, was led to push his enterprises 
still further. In the year 1419 § he sent an expedition to 
attempt the doubling of Gape Bojador||. Jo&o Gon^alves 
Zarco and Tristao Vaz Teixeira, who were in command of the 
expedition, were driven so fer off shore that all reckoning 
VTas lost, when at daybreak they saw an island before them, 
which they caUed Porto Santo^ to commemorate their deliver- 
ance. On their return Prince Henry sent out Zarco, Vaz, 
and Pestrello to plant a colony on the new island. It was 
not long before a dark spot was observed on the western 
horizon of Porto Santo. This was regarded by some with 
superstitious awe ; but Zarco concluded it to be clouds at- 
tracted by high land IF, and shaping his course in that direc- 
tion, in spite of the endeavours of his crew, by menaces 
and supplications, to prevent him, he discovered, in the year 

* Faria j Sousa, torn. i. c. 1. 

f Lib. iii., Das Illias de Porto Santo & Madeyra, p. 62. LiBb. 1717. 

X Mariana (edit 1592), Hist, de reb. Hisp., b. 18, chap. ix. 

§ Barros, Dec I., 1. i. cap. 2. 

II So called from the Spanish, hojhr, to compass or go about 

% Alcaforado. 



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62 CAPE BOJADOB. [chap. iv. 

1420 ♦, the island to which, from the trees that covered it, 
he gave the name of Madeira^. 

From these events we may date the commencement of that 
great epoch of maritime adventure which raised Portugal to 
the rank of one of the chief nations of Europe, and paved 
the way to the discovery of the New World. 

CAPE BOJADOB. 

It was not till twelve years J after the discovery of Madeira 
that the doubling of Cape Bojador was accomplished. It is 
not a little remarkable, as Rennell observes, that the Portu- 
guese, the best mariners at that day, should have found so 
much difficulty in accomplishing a task which had been often 
performed by ancient navigators. 

COLUMBUS. 

Gomara a^d other Spanish writers affirm that Columbus 
was a resident in Madeira. Juan de Mariana relates " that a 
certain ship was driven from the coast of Afri<»i by a tempest 
to unknown lands. The storm at length abated, and the 
ship was cast upon the island of Madeira. There was by 
chance on that island one Christopher Columbus, a Genoese 
by birth, who had married in Portugal, and was a very ac- 

* Aeut, cap. 88. 

f " The word Madeira has the same signification as the Lat Materia, 
from which it is only yemacnhirised, the Portngaese frequently substituting 
d for the Lat. t, and transposing the r from its situation with its connecting 
vowel ; of which we need give no more fiuniliar instances than padre and 
fradre for pater and frater, when used in a spiritual sense. That materia is 
the classical term for forest trees, we have the authority of Osesar, in his 
Commentaries, who remarks of Britain, * Materia cujusque generis, ut in 
Gallia, est ; praeter fiigum et abietem.' " — Itees* Cydopadia, art. Madeira, 

t Faria y Sonsa. 



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CHAP. !▼.] COLUMBUS. 63 

complished navigator — ^a man of a great heart and lofty 
thoughts. The captain of the ship put Oolumhus in pos- 
session of the memorandums of his voyage, which first in- 
spired him with a desire to visit those parts." Though we 
may douht the truth of this tale, still the connection of Oo- 
lumhus with the Madeiras may very likely have sown the 
seed of his suhsequent discoveries. His wife was a daughter 
of Pestrello, who had heen engaged in discovering the islands 
of Porto Santo and Madeira. Columbus, it is said, got pos- 
session of the journals and charts of his father-in-law, and 
from them learned the course the Portuguese had held in their 
discoveries, as well as what they found to guide and encourage 
them in their attempts. Whilst he read the accounts of new 
countries and new people the flame of his favourite passion 
was fanned, and the wish to embark on adventures of his 
own became paramount in his mind. His first voyage was to 
Madeira*, and he continued for several years to trade with 
that island, with the Azores, the settlements in Guinea, and 
all the other places which the Portuguese had discovered on 
the continent of Africa. 

The following romantic story of the first re-discovery of 
Madeira is said to have been told by Alcaforado, who 
flourished a ferw years after the colony was first settled 
here f. 

* Robertson's Life of Columbus, cb. iv. y. 

f Alcaforado's story was translated into French, and published in Paris 
in the year 1671, in a work called Relation Historique de la Dicouverte de 
VIsle de Madera, traduit du Portugais. The translator says of his author, 
"Personne ne pouvait reussir mieux que lui dans sa narration de cette 
avantnre, puis qu'il assista en personne IL la decouverte qui fut faite ensuite. 
Dom Francois Manuel en garde Toriginal manuscrit avec beancoup de soin, 
c'est lui a qui nous avons I'obligation d'en avoir fait part au public en sa 
langue." 



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64 HISTOBT OF MAOHIM. [chap. XT. 

HISTOBT OF ICAGHIM. 

An Englishman, of obscure birth, named Robert Machim, 
who lived in the latter part of the reign of Edward III., fell 
in love with Anna D*Arfet, a beautiful damsel of a noble 
femily. Her father, incensed with his presumption, obtained 
the imprisonment of the lover, and married his daughter to a 
more illustrious suitor. The bridegroom, however, having 
left his castle near Bristol to attend the king in his wars, 
Machim, when released, procured access to Anna, and per- 
suaded her to escape with him to France. They sailed with- 
out a pilot for the coast of Bretagne, but, a storm arising, 
lost their reckoning, and after running for ten days before 
the gale, at length discovered in the horizon the coast of 
Madeira, and landed, in the year 1346, in a bay afterwards 
named Machico from him. 

Another storm drove Machim's vessel from its anchorage, 
leaving those who had landed from it in such distress, that 
the lady died of grief, and Machim, refusing all food, did not 
long survive her, and was buried in the same grave. The 
rest, having ornamented the tomb with a large wooden cross, 
and placed near it an inscription which Machim had pre- 
pared, requesting the first Christians who might read it to 
raise a chapel on the spot, took to their boat, and being car- 
ried to the coast of Barbary, were made captives by the 
Moors. Whilst in captivity, they related their adventures and 
described the position of Madeira to a fellow-captive, who 
afterwards communicated the facts to a Spanish pilot called 
Morales, in the employ of Gon9alves Zarco. 

This tale, it should appear, was not deemed worthy of no- 
tice by the Portuguese historian De Barros, who ascribes the 



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CHAP. IV.] GOVERNORS APPOINTED. — ALLOTMENT OF LAND. 65 

discovery of the island entirely to Gon9alve8 Zarco and 
Tristram Vaz ; nor will it, I fear, go far to authenticate it, 
that a bit of the cedar cross is still shown in the chapel at 
Machico, which is said to have been built over the grave of 
the lovers, or that there was a Padre, till lately living at 
Cani9al, who said he remembered under the altar the roots of 
an old tree, the same, it is presumed, beneath which they died. 
Yet that some such story had reached the ears of Zarco is 
accredited by the fact, if it be one, that he * named the place 
of his first anchorage " Porto dos Inglezes,'' and on his second 
voyage changed it to that of ** Forto de Machico" Antonio 
Galuano, in his chronicles of Portuguese discoveries up to 
J 550, gives a diflFerent version of this same story ; he relates 
that Machim escaped after the death of Anna, in a boat 
which was picked up on the coast of Africa by the Moors, and 
was sent as a curiosity to Henry III., King of Castile. 

GOVERNORS APPOINTED. 

As soon as its discoverers had sobered down sufficiently 
from the first burst of joy, with which the announcement of 
her new acquisition was hailed in Portugal, to turn their 
minds to colonization and government, Joao Gon9alves Zarco 
and Tristao Vaz Teixeira were dispatched to Madeira, with a 
few nobles who volunteered to accompany them. 

ALLOTMENT OF LAND. 

To Zarco were committed the western and southern por- 
tions of the island, with Funchal for a capital ; and to Vaz 
the eastern and northern half, where he established himself 
at Machico. The lands in the two captaincies were divided 
by option amongst the nobles and gentlemen who accompa^ 

* EncycL Metrop., rol. yiii. p. 648. 



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66 ORIGINAL GOVERNMENT, ETC. [chap. nr. 

nied the expedition. From these lords of the soil the most 
distinguished families in Madeira are descended. The la- 
bouring class has been derived partly from their adherents, 
partly from the disowned of the mother country, and from 
Moorish captives; there have been also subsequent admix- 
tures of African and Negro blood, which shows itself strongly 
in the features of some of the present inhabitants. 

ORIGINAL GOVERNMENT. 

To the two Governors was committed all jurisdiction, civil 
and military, within their respective captaincies ; in cases of 
life and death only was there appeal to Lisbon. Absolute 
monopoly, and a tithe of all crown revenue, were also be- 
stowed upon the captains and their heirs for ever, under the 
title of donatorios. 

DEATH OF ZARCO. 

The first Governor of Funchal enjoyed his rule for forty- 
seven years, executed many useful works, and left the name 
of Zarco universally respected. His remains are deposited in 
the convent of Santa Clara. 

FUNOHAL CONSTITUTED A CITY. 

In 1608 Funchal was invested with the dignities and privi- 
leges of a city. In 1 640 the captaincy of Machico, in de- 
fault of heirs, reverted to the crown ; the king bestowed it on 
Antonio de Menezes. 

INVASION BY FRENCH PRIVATEERS. 

In 1566 (during the government of SimSo Gon9alves da 
Camera, the fifth captain) three French privateers made 
their appearance off Funchal. The marauders effected a 



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CHAP. IV.] ENGLISH POSSESSION. 67 

landing in the bay of Praya Formosa, and, after a short 
strug^e on the part of the inhabitants, made themselves 
mastf .-s of the city. On the first alarm, a small hiate* had 
succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the pirates, and making 
its way with the news to Lisbon. The inhabitants fled from the 
town, leaving it to be sacked by the invaders ; much gold and 
silver and many jewels were collected together, and the three 
vessels sailed away at the end of fifteen days with their spoil, 
just before the long wished-for succour arrived from Lisbon. 

MADEIRA PASSES INTO THE DOMINION OF SPAIN. 

Dom Sabastido was killed in battle, in Africa, in the year 
1578, and in the year 1580 the Philips began to govern in 
Portugal ; Madeira fell, with the mother country, under the 
dominion of Spain : one governor was appointed by its new 
masters over the whole island, to whom sole authority was 
given in the administration of public afiGurs. The donatorios 
were not deprived of their rights in matters of revenue, and 
the governor was paid by the crown. The Spanish rule, 
however, bore heavily on commerce, and it was not till that 
yoke was shaken ojff under Dom Joao IV. in 1640 that trade 
revived and the island recovered its prosperity. 

ENGLISH POSSESSION. 

From this time no political event of importance seems to 
have occurred in the history of the colony, till the English, in 
the year 1801, under Clinton, and again in 1807, under 
Beresford, to prevent the danger of French occupation, at a 
crisis when the rights of neutrals were little respected, took 
the island under their protection, and the Union Jack for a 
short time waved from its forts. 

• A sort of " fore and aft" rigged vessel. 



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68 DOM MIGUEL. — ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIB8. [chap. iv. 



DOM MIGUEL. 

In 1828 Dom Miguel having occupied the throne of Por- 
tugal, Madeira also came under the same rule, and on his 
expulsion in 1834, it acknowledged in like manner the title 
of Donna Maria Segundo. In 1847 a popular emeute in 
favour of the liberal constitution of 1820 displaced the 
government for a few weeks, but by the united intervention 
of England and France it was restored without bloodshed. 

ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 

The spiritualities of the island are vested in the Order of 
Christ *, and the sovereign, as grand master of the order, 
presents to the bishopric, the cathedral offices, canonries, 
vicarages, and benefices ; the church preferment is only tern- 
porarily filled up by the bishop of the diocese. By the law 
of the 26th of March, 1843, the benefices then vacant, or 
those which might thereafter become vacant, in the districts 
of the nine collegiate churches of the island, could not be 
filled up, their revenues being set aside by that law for the 
increase of poor livings, and the establishment of new cura- 
cies. This object has been in part carried out by a law of 
the 24th of June, 1848. The nine collegiate churches are 
the following: — Santa Maria Maior, S*? Pedro, Camera de 
Lobos, Bibeira Brava, Ponta do Sol, Oalheta, Machico, Sancta 
Cruz, and Porto Santo. 

* " L'ordre militaire de Christ, instita^^ comme on Ta dit, par Denis I., 
Roi de Portugal^ Tan 1819, fiit confirm^ par le Pape Jean XXII., qui donna 
anx cheyaliers la rdgle de S. Benoit Mais Alexandre YI. leur permit de 
se marier. lis sent vStos de blanc, et portent sur la poitrine une croix 
patriarchale de gnenles, charg^e d'nne autre croix d'argent. La Grande 
Maitrise de Tordre est r6imie k la cooronne de Portugal" — L'Art de virt/ier 
let Dates, Paris, 1788, vol i p. 780. 



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CHAP. IV.] BISHOP APPOINTED. — ^ECCLBSIASTICAIi COUBTS. 69 

The Ecclesiastical division of the island now compre- 
hends 50, instead of 46 parishes ; the bishop of the diocese 
having found it necessary to increase the number, in con- 
sequence of the large population and size of some of the old 
parishes. 

The first church built in the island was that at Machico. 
After Zarco had removed to the government of Funchal, he 
erected another church, which he dedicated to N. S. de Cal- 
hao ; this was washed away by the flood of 1803. The next 
built was the chapel of Santa Catherina. 

BISHOP APPOINTED. 

In 1514 Funchal, which had hitherto been ruled by a 
vigario, was raised to a bishopric, and the cathedral was 
erected ; in 1539 it was advanced still further to the rank of 
an archbishopric, but the archiepiscopal see was afterwards 
removed to Goa, and a bishop again appointed in 1547. 

ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS. 

Formerly the Church had a court of its own, in which all 
ecclesiastical causes, whether civil or criminal, were tried. 
A special prison for the clergy was attached to it. This 
court and prison were abolished by the constitution of 1822. 
In the Ecclesiastical Court, as at present existing, the bishop 
is only empowered to suspend a clergyman, convicted of any 
offence, from the exercise of his office ; but he cannot deprive 
any one, canonically collated to a benefice, without the ap- 
proval of the government of Lisbon, to whom the pleadings 
and sentence of the ordinary are forwarded. Where the 
case is one for which the legislature has provided a punish- 
ment, the pleadings are forwarded to the Juiz de Direito, 
who puts the law of the land into execution. A suit between 



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70 SALARY OF THE CLERGY.— DIOCESE OF FUNCHAL. [chap. iv. 

a clergyman and a citizen is carried on in the civil courts, 
and a clergyman committing any criminal act is, on convic- 
tion, imprisoned in the common gaol, like any other trans- 
gressor. 

SALARY OF THE CLERGY. 

The Bishop of Funchal receives an annual net stipend, 
free from government taxes on all salaries, of £412 10s.; the 
rest of the clergy receive their stipends principally in wine 
and wheat, with a small proportion in money. The govern- 
ment receives the large and small tithes of Madeira and 
Porto Santo, making distribution to the clergy. 

DIOCESE OF FUNCHAL. 

The diocese of Funchal comprises the islands of Madeira 
and Porto Santo ; the islands of the Dezertas and Salvages, 
on which there are at present no permanent inhabitants; 
and the fortress of Argium on the African coast, of which the 
diocesan of Funchal is merely titular bishop. The eccle- 
siastical body of Madeira consists of the following clergy: — 

Istly. The bishop, whose staff is composed of a provisor, 
who is one of the canons; a vicar-general, who is professor of 
dogmatic theology at the seminario or priests' college ; a pro- 
motor j who is an honorary canon ; an escrivdo, of the Eccle- 
siastical Court ; and a murinho^ an under officer of the same 
court. 

Sndly. The cathedral clergy *, composed of a dean ; an 
archdeacon ; three canonical dignitaries ; twelve canons ; 
four minor canons, having half stalls or prebends; two 
curates {jparochos); ten chaplains {carUores)\ and one sub- 
chanter; besides which there are — six chorister boys; an 

* Of this cathedral staff there are six canonries and two minor canonries 
vacant, which will prohably never be filled up. 



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CHAP. IV.] MONASTIC ESTABLISHMENTS, ETC. 71 

dUarHro; a master of the ceremonies; a mestre da capeUa 
da musica; a sacristan; a mace bearer; and a bell-ringer. 

Srdly. There are 145 presbyters, including those in the 
cathedral; 1 deacon; 16 minor clergy (cZenco« in minonfcws); 
42 vicars; 38 curates; and 5 heneficiados. 

MONASTIC ESTABLISHMENTS. 

In 1835 there existed in Funchal three convents: one 
dedicated to Senhora das Merces, called Capuchas, with 26 
nuns in it; Santa Clara, with 46 nuns ; Incama9ao, with 
30 nuns and 4 pupils; the two latter of the Franciscan order; 
besides five monasteries. These establishments are in pro- 
cess of dissolution : the monks have all disappeared, and the 
monasteries are no more ; the convents are still in existence, 
but the nuns are fast dying off. The suppression of such pro- 
perty, supposing no vested interests to be violated, and the 
revenues reserved for other spiritual purposes, may be for the 
public advantage. The poor, indeed, can be no longer re- 
lieved at the convent gate ; but experience has shown that 
indiscriminate alms promote beggary as much as they relieve 
want, and if a public provision for the indigent, involving 
some test, were substituted, the people would profit by the 
change. Though we may be excused for admiring mo- 
nasteries as things of yore, for the good which they did 
in their day, yet it would be a very different thing to wish 
them back again, and to shut one's eyes to all the abuses 
of the system. 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 

There are two brotherhoods, Irmandades, still existing in 
Funchal for religious purposes — one of the Carmelite, and 
the other of the Franciscan order. Either sex are admis- 



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m PLAGES OF EDUCATION. [chap. it. 

sible, and each member pays a small sum towards the main- 
tenance of the order. When any of the Irmandade die, a 
number of the order attend the funeral : they accompany the 
Host, attend religious processions, &c. The contributions 
to these brotherhoods, and the management of the revenues 
arising from properties left to them, are in the hands of 
twelve of the corporation. The funds are applied to the 
preservation and decoration of churches, the fulfilling of the 
pious obligations imposed by benefEU^tors, and the mainte- 
nance of Divine worship. These treasurers are accountable 
for their stewardship to the civil governor of the island. 

PLACES OF EDUCATION. 

There is a Seminario, or Priests* College, intended for the 
education of all those who purpose entering holy orders, 
under the management of a Bettor and Prefeito. It was 
established for twelve coUegiates, preference being given to 
persons from the country. The College is in possession of con- 
siderable property in the parishes of Camera de Lobos, Estreito 
de Camera de Lobos, Machico, S^ Pedro, and elsewhere. 
From these lands it receives wheat, wines, and other produce. 
Government contributes £303 13«. 4d. annually to its sup- 
port. Commodious premises, capable of containing eighteen 
inmates, are connected with the establishment, where the 
students are domiciled, educated, and fed : two only of the 
students at present pay for their education. The course of 
study consists of Latin, dogmatic theology, morals, and 
music. 

There is a medico-chirurgical school, under the direction of 
two professors. The first professor's chair comprises the 
study of anatomy, physiology, operating surgery, midwifery, 
and clinical surgery. In the years 1848 and 1849 eleven 



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CHAP. IV.] PLACES OF EDUCATION. 73 

students attended these lectures. The second professor's 
chair includes pathology, materia-medica, therapeutics, and 
clinical medicine. Eleven students attended this course 
in the years 1848 and 1849. The first professor has given 
lectures on midwifery, and diplomas to 50 females, who now 
practise in the district of Funchal. 

There are several places of general education : — Firstly, a 
Lyceum, which forms part of a huilding erected by the Jesuits 
when they visited the island in 1566. For this establishment 
a law, passed on the 12th of June, 1849, appointed the fol- 
lowing professors : — Chairs 1 and 2, under one professor, 
embrace Portuguese and Latin grammar, and the study 
of the Latin tongue. — Chair 3. Arithmetic and the elements 
of algebra and geometry. — Chair 4. Logic, moral philosophy, 
and the elements of natural right, — Chair 5. Ehetoric, poetry, 
and classical literature. — Chair 6. Commerce, geography, chro- 
nology, and history*. Secondly, there are forty-one schools of 
primary instruction ; four are paid by the treasury, of which one 
is a girls' school, and sixteen paid by the municipal corporation, 
of which eleven are girls* schools. The private schools are 
twenty-one in number. The number of scholars is 2203 ; 
of these 883 are boys, and 1320 are girls. There is an infant 
school, with an income of about £150 ; and there are two 
Eecolhimentos, or refuges : one for orphans, in connection with, 
and supported by, the hospital of Funchal ; and the other, 
the Bom Jezus, for widows and others, supported by its own 
revenues, but under the direction of the ordinary. The 

* In the years 1848-49, the courses of the 1st and 2nd of these chairs 
were attended by twenty-four students ; on the 8rd chair there was no 
attendance; the 4th was attended by seventeen; and the 5th by eleven. 
On chair 6 there was no attendance. Of the French and English languages 
there were thirty-four students ; sixteen of the former, and eighteen of the 
latter. 



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74 PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. [ohap.it. 

orphan establishment maintains six orphans, a superintendent 
of the house, and a portress. There are eighteen inmates, 
but twelve of these are paid for by friends or relatives. 

Beyond the limits of the Concelho of Funchal there are 
scattered over the island ten bojs' schools, paid by the trea. 
Bury, with 376 scholars ; sixteen boys' schools, paid by the 
municipal corporations, with 428 scholars, and two girls' 
schools, with forty-two scholars ; four private girls' schools, 
with twenty-two scholars ; and two private boys* schools, with 
twenty-three scholars. 

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 

In the capital of the district of Funchal there are the 
following public establishments: — a civil hospital, a mi- 
litary hospital, a lazar hospital, and an asylum for the 
poor. In each of the Concelhos of Sancta Cruz, Machico, 
Oalheta, and Porto Santo, there is a hospital, so called. 

The first hospital in Madeira was founded on the 25th 
of March, 1454, by Joao Gon^alves Zarco. It was erected at 
S*? Paulo. Subsequently the establishment was removed to 
the parish of Santa Maria Maior, and in 1685 it was again 
moved to its present position in the Pra^a da ConstitU9ao. 
This hospital, Santa Caza da Mizericordia, has been at 
various times liberally endowed by the Government, as well 
as by individuals. In ancient days the Grown granted 
it the privilege of a preference over all other creditors 
in the collection of its debts, a privilege which has, how- 
ever, been annulled by recent enactment. The old law also 
obliged the trustees of the hospital to loan out at interest 
all superfluous funds, on the security of real estates, or 
pledges of value: the result has proved most unfortunate, 
as from many of the debtors the interest cannot now be 



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CHAP. IV.] PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 75 

obtained, much less the principal, and the establishment 
having no longer the privilege of a preference creditor, 
its funds are not now sufficient to provide for half the 
number which the building is calculated to hold. In the 
parishes of Camera de Lobos, S"P Martinho, and Santo An- 
tonio, the hospital has lands which produce some of the best 
wine in the island. It is also possessed of landed property 
in many other parishes, and a great number of houses in the 
city of Funchal pay /iSro, or ground rent, to this estab- 
lishment *. 

From 800 to 1000 persons are annually received into the 
hospital, and about an equal number obtain medicine and me- 
dical treatment, as outnioor patients. In the beginning of 
the year 1847 there were 79 persons in the wards ; during 
that year 995 patients entered, of whom 539 were men, and 
456 women: of these 735 were cured, fJ73 died, and 66 
remained. In the year 1848, 754 persons entered^ of whom 
373 were men, and 381 women : of these 571 were cured, 
164 died, and 85 remained. In the year 1849, 683 entered ; 
334 men, and 349 women : of whom 599 were cured, 111 
died, and 58 remained. 

The orphan establishment, before mentioned, is annexed 
to this hospital, and supported from its funds. 

The affairs of the hospital are managed by a Commissdo 
AdminUtrativa, composed of a president, a treasurer, a se- 
cretary, and two other members. The attendants in the hos- 

* The nominal funds of the hospital amount to £88,051 Ss, Sid. ; viz. : 
capital lent at interest, £16,815 9t. Sd, ; value of property paying ground 
rents, £6274 2s, Sid.; properties in the country, £6028 6«. Sd.; pro- 
perties in Funchal, £8933 6*. Sd, The money received in 1847 was 
£2302 3«. 7 id. ; in 1848, it was £1881 Us, ll^d, ; and in 1849, the recdpts 
were £1548 2s, 7d., leaving in the latter year arrears amounting to 
£8027 19«. Zd, due to the &bric. 

E 2 



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75 PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. [chap. IT. 

pital are a physician, an operating surgeon, a house surgeon, 
a chemist, with an assistant, besides an inspector, who has 
two assistants and two nurses under him. The pupils from 
the medico-chirurgical school receive here practical instruc- 
tion in the treatment of different diseases, in anatomy, and 
pharmacy. 

A chapel is annexed to the hospital, which has its regular 
chaplain and sacristan, paid from the funds of the establish- 
ment. 

During the last war, and for many years subsequently, the 
English had a ward in the hospital, superintended by their 
OTSPQ physician and surgeon. The expenses were borne by the 
resident British merchants in Madeira. The salaries to these 
officers were stopped in the year 1828, when their services 
were no longer required, and the ward was altogether given 
up at the end of the year 1838. Sailors and distressed 
foreigners are now received into the hospital, where they are 
provided with food, lodging, medical treatment, and every- 
thing but drugs, at the moderate rate of 2«. id. per diem. 

The troops stationed on the island have always their own 
hospital, as well as their own medical officer. 

The lazar hospital, for the reception of persons afflicted 
bwith elephantiasis, has an annual expenditure of from £200 
to £300*. It is doubtful whether any one afflicted with this 
disease has ever recovered from it. 

* The expenses in 1847 amounted to £264 7t. 6d,; in 1848, to 
£290 16s, Sd,; and in 1849, to £805 4s. 2d, In the boning of the 
year 1847, there were 26 patients in this hospital, 19 men and 7 women ; 
daring the same year 14 entered, of whom 5 men died, and 22 men and 
18 women remained ; in 1848, 8 entered, 5 men and 8 women ; in which 
year 5 men and 2 women died, leaving 22 men and 14 women : during the 
year 1849, 5 entered, 4 men and 1 woman ; 7 men and 1 woman died this 
year, leaving 88 patients in the hospital, 19 men and 14 women. 



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CHAP. IV.] PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 77 

There is no provision by law for the poor of the island. 
Some years ago, as may be seen in old accounts of Madeira, 
the visitor was shocked by swarms of beggturs, thrusting their 
disfigured members or emaciated babes into the faces of the 
passers-by: but, of late years, the Camera has appointed a 
large building of its own erection as an AsUo da Mendicidade 
for these miserable creatures. Good food and work are pro- 
vided at the Asilo, which is an institution well worthy the 
support of philanthropic visitors. A bazaar is held annually 
at the governor's house, in aid of its funds*. 

Madeira had formerly a colonial government. Within a few 
years it has been put on the footing of a province ; and now, 
though it has some local peculiarities in its administration, it 
is treated as an integral part of the kingdom of Portugal. In 
the year 1841, the new judicial reform divided all Portugal 
into 21 administrative and 10 military districts. Portugal 
proper contains 17 administrative and 8 military districts ; — 
the Azores, three administrative and one military ; — and the 
Madeiras, one administrative and one military. 

The islands of Madeira and Porto Santo are divided dis- 
tinctively into judicial and administrative districts. The ju- 
dicial divisions into comarcas and julgados; and the adminis- 
trative into concelhos (municipalities) ajidfregiiezias (parishes). 
They are as follows: — 

• In 1849 tliis bazaar produced £847 0«. 4:}td.; in 1850, £220 7«. Hid, 
was obtained by it. The receipts of the asylum from yarious sources were, 
in 1847, £546 IBs, 9\d,; in 1848, they were £755 13s, lOid,, and in 
1849 the institution received £828 15«. S^d, Of these sums English 
visitors to Madeira were contributors, in 1847, of ^120 ; in 1848, of j8I00 ; 
and in 1849, of £60. 

In the beginning of the year 1847, there were 810 persons in the asylum : 
214 entered in that year, of whom 84 died, 881 were sent away, and 159 
remained ; in the year 1848, 811 persons entered, 28 died, 256 were sent 
away, and 186 remained; in 1849, 228 new inmates were received, 15 
died, 224 were sent away, and 175 were left in the asilo. 



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78 


PUBLIC 


INSTITUTIONS. [chap, it 


DlTUAO Jcmcf AIm 


DiYiaAO AoMiwiaraATiTA. 


Comarcai. 


1 Julgadof.' 


Concelhot. 


Fregueilas. 






/ 


S»p Martinho. 


Occidental . . 


S. Pedro .- 




Santo Antonio. 








Sao Roque. 








S«> Pedro. 






Funchal 


S^. 

Santa Lnsia. 




S6 . . .. 




N. Snra do Monte. 
Santa Maria Maior. 






I 


SaoGon^alo. 




L 


' 


Cani90. 




' 


SanctaCnu^ 


Camacha. 
Gaula. 


Oriental . . 






Sancta Cruz. 




8.Crui. .- 


P 


Agoa de Pena. 






Machioo .-« 


Santo Antonio da Serra. 
Machico. 




. 




Oani<^ 








Porto da Cmz. 
Faial. 




aAnna . 


6. Anna .- 


Santa Anna. 






Sao Jorge. 






I 


Arco de S. Jorge. 








Ponta Delgada. 
Sao Vincente. 




S. Vincente 


S. Vincente • 


SeixaL 

Bibeira da Janella. 






V 


Porto do Monis. 








Ponta do Pargo. 
FajHa da Ovelha. 
Paul do Mar. 




Calheta. . 


Calheta. 


Jatdim do Mar. 

Prazeres. 

Estreito da Calheta. 


Occidental . . 




v. 


Calheta. 

Arco da Calheta. 








Magdalena. 
Canhas. 




P.deSol . 


P.deSol . 


Ponta do Sol. 
Atahua. 
Bibeira Brava. 








Serra d'Agoa. 
Campanario. 














Bstreito de Camera de 




C. dt Leboe 


C.deLobofl' 


Lobos. 
Cornddai Freiras. 


I 




^ 


Camera de Loboe. 


Oriental . . 


Porto St? (Hha) 


Porto St? . 


Nossa Snra da Piedade. 



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CHAP. IV.] CIVIL GOVERNOBS.— JUDGES. 79 

In each concelho there is a magistrate, entitled adminis- 
trador do concelho; and a body called camera municipal, 
which is elected by the inhabitants of the municipal district 
every two years. The revenues of these corporations are 
derived from imposts levied on articles of food, and the rents 
of properties within their concelkos. The collection of reve- 
nue is entrusted to a treasurer, who receives a fixed salary. 
The parishes contained within the concelhos are subdivided 
into cerctdos, in each of which there is a junta da parrochia 
(vestry) and a regidor (constable). 

GIVIL GOVERNORS. 

The civil governor of Madeira has under his supervision 
all the different branches of the public service. His prin- 
cipal duties are, to order and regulate all government ex- 
penses, according to the law in existence, or agreeably to any 
special enactment of the Lisbon cabinet; to secure from 
injury the properties and rights of the crown ; to transmit 
all necessary instructions to his subalterns ; and to promote 
the agricultural and industrial welfare of the people. 

JUDGES, 

There are four orders of judges: — I. The juiz de paz, 2. 
The juiz eleito, 8. The juiz ordinario. 4, The juiz de 
dvreito, 

1 . The juiz de paz, as his name denotes, is a magistrate of 
peace. His office is, to use all the means which prudence 
and equity suggest, to bring the parties to an understanding, 
so as to avoid a law-suit. No cause involving property, the 
value of which exceeds six dollars, can be proceeded in, with- 



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80 JUDGES. [CHAP. IV. 

out being first submitted to the juiz de paz. This officer is 
elected by the people, to serve for two years ; his services are 
gratuitous, and one or more parishes form his district. 

a. The juiz eleito, like the juiz de paz, is elected by the 
people; like him he serves gratuitously, and has one or two 
parishes joined under his jurisdiction. He decides, ^naZZy, 
all causes not exceeding in value one dollar two hundred and 
fifty reis, whether in personal property, money, or cases of 
injury done by persons or cattle in wheat-fields, vineyards, 
gardens, orchards, pastures, and plantations, where the injury 
does not amount to a criminal act Lastly, he decides cases 
of fines imposed for transgressions against the regulations of 
the municiped authorities: where the amount of fine exceeds 
his jurisdiction, there is appeal to the juiz ordinario. 

3. The juiz ordinario is, in common with the juiz eleito 
and the juiz de paz, elected by the people, and like them 
serves for two years ; he has no salary but what he receives 
in fees from suitors, which, however, is very little. There is 
a juiz ordinario over each julgado of the island; he decides, 
finally, all causes, within his district, which do not involve 
an amount of more than four dollars real, or six dollars per- 
sonal property ; and in criminal cases where the punishment 
does not exceed three days' imprisonment or a fine of two 
dollars. He judges, subject to an appeal to the juiz de 
direito, causes, which do not involve an amount of more than 
twenty dollars real, or thirty dollars personal property ; and 
criminal cases, in which the penalty does not exceed a fine 
of ten dollars, or one month's imprisonment: should the 
penalty, however, in criminal cases exceed such an amount, 
the appeal is transferred to the tribunal da policia correc- 
donal. It is, moreover, the office of the juiz ordinario to 



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CHAP, nr.] JUDGES. 8l 

prepare for the court of the juiz de direito all processes, 
whether civil or criminal, which come under the cognizance 
of that judge. 

4. The juiz de direito is appointed by government, one 
over each comarca; his salary is paid by the crown, and he 
also receives a small fee from parties sueing in his court; 
he decides, ^na%, all appeals to him from the^ut;:? ordinario; 
and, subject to appeal to the superior courts in Lisbon, all 
causes involving an amount of more than twenty dollars real, 
or thirty dollars personal property. He judges, also subject to 
appeal to Lisbon, with a jury, all criminal cases, where the 
penalty exceeds six months' imprisonment, banishment out of 
the comarca, or a fine of forty dollars: where the penalty, 
in criminal cases, is less than this, and yet exceeds his 
summary powers, he judges appeals from the juiz ordina- 
rio with the tribunal da policia correccional. This tribunal 
is composed of the juiz de direito and four other members 
named by the municipal corporation. To the juiz de direito 
is attached a delegado do procurador regio, or public prose- 
cutor. 

The jury are solely judges of the fact, and from their 
decision there is no appeal. A verdict is arrived at by a 
majority of two-thirds of the jury, which is composed of 
twelve, or, in small districts, of nine persons. 

The law establishing the reforma judicial in Portugal in 
1832 was carried into effect in Madeira in 1835 ; by it, the 
old judicial offices of corregidor, Juiz defora, juiz dos orfdos, 
providor dos auzentes, reziduos, and capella^, have been abo- 
lished, and their duties are now performed by the juiz de 
direito. A British judge, conservator, was formerly named 
by the consul and English residents, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Portuguese government; he received a salary 

E 3 



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82 CE1MINAL8. — LAWS OP INHEBITANGE. [ohap. it. 

from the former, and all suits with British subjects were 
generally tried by him. In oonformitj with the stipulations 
in the 17th Article of the treaty of the 29th of July, 1842, 
between England and Portugal, the eonservatorial court was 
abolished, and all suits with British subjects are now tried 
in the same manner as between Portuguese. 

GEUnNALS. 

Criminals remain in prison from the time of their being 
apprehended till the month of May or November next ensu- 
ing, in which months the sessions are held. After condemna- 
tion, they remain a year or more in prison, till their sentences 
are confirmed or revoked by a superior tribunal in Lisbon. 
About 100 are tried yearly in the Tribunal Correccional, the 
greater part of whom are condemned; of 40 more tried in the 
Tribunal do Jury, rather more than half are condemned. 
The number of criminals in the district of Fimchal was, in 
1847, 153; in 1848, 76; and in 1849, 77. 

The administration of justice must be allowed at least to 
be lenient, and, notwithstanding its mildness, the population 
cannot be considered as exhibiting an excess of crime against 
property or life. The character of the people on the whole, 
if not distinguished for the loftier virtues, is certainly gentle 
and courteous. 

LAWS OF INHERITANCE. 

The laws of inheritance assign property to direct heirs for 
two generations, forward and backward. By will, however, 
one-third may be alienated from these. In event of the 
failure of such heirs, the whole of an unentailed estate may 
be disposed of by will. The laws of entail are now much 



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CHAP. IV.] lAWS OP INHERITANCE. 83 

modified. Formerly any one was competent to foond morga* 
do8, or vineuloi, and capeUas; if the founder had direct heirs, 
he could only entail a third part of his property; otherwise, 
the whole ; the institator of an entail was at liberty to fix the 
order of succession. 

The difference between a morgado, or vinculoy and s^capeUa 
is, that the latter property was liable to contributions to re- 
ligious purposes (enoargos pios), such as providing certain 
masses or alms ; so that, in fact, the life occupant only re 
ceived a third or a fourth of the income, for his trouble in 
managing the property: morgado is a term employed to 
signify either an estate entailed for ever, or its life tenant. 
Neither morgado or capeUa property could be alienated. 

In the time of the Marquis of Pombal, two important 
laws, with reference to this species of property, were passed. 
The first, dated September 9, 1769, prohibited the found- 
ing of capeUas on real property, reducing the encargos pios to 
the tenth part of the income of all capeUcu then in exist- 
ence ; it further abrogated all those capeUas which did not 
yield the life occupant a net income of Ml ISs, Ad. per 
annum, in the proyince of Estremadura, or of £^0 16<. Sd. 
in all other parts of the Portuguese dominions: in event of 
such properties lapsing to the crown, through fdlure of heirs, 
the encargos pios were entirely abolished by this law. The 
law justifies itself in these words: " The charges on proper- 
tie9 for masses are already so many, that were all the per- 
sons, of one and the other sex, in these kingdoms, priests, 
they could not perform a third part of the masses required 
by deeds registered in the will-offices. In one of the small- 
est of these offices, for example, 12,000 capeUas are insti- 
tuted, and more than 500,000 masses annually required." 

The law passed August 3, 1770, went further, and abo- 



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84 LAWS OF INHERITANCE. [chap. IT. 

lished all entails (morgadoi) which did not yield to the life 
occupant a net income of £41 138. 4(2. in the provinces of 
Alem Tejo and Estremadura, or of £20 16^. %d, in the rest 
of the Portuguese dominions ; it annulled all irregular* suc- 
cessions which had been established bj founders of entails ; 
and regulated the form of making new entails, granting this 
privilege only to persons of rank, or to those who had distin- 
guished themselves in some way or other. Thenceforth no 
entail could be instituted, without royal licence, and unless 
the property yielded an income of £600 per annum. 

On the 4th of April, 1832, another law was enacted, by 
which aU entails, not yielding the life occupant a net income 
of £41 138. 4(2., were abolished ; facilities were afforded for 
exchanging, leasing, and renting entailed properties; and 
the life occupant wi#iout a successor, was allowed to cut off 
the entail, even though the income of the estate should 
exceed £500 per annum ; in which case previously the pro- 
perty would have lapsed to the crown. 

In case of marriage, the nuptial contract is observed ; if 
there is no nuptial contract, the half of all the goods belongs 
to the widower or widow, and the testator can only dispose of 
one-half freely ; or if the testator has direct heirs, he has 
only power over one-third of this half. If there is no will, 
in the first place the direct descendants and ascendants, or, 
in failure of these, the nearest blood relations, inherit the 
portion of the deceased; in failure of relations to the tenth 
degree, the surviving spouse inherits, or, if there is none, 
the public treasury. This law applies to foreign as well as 
native residents in Madeira. 



* What is called a regular succession is where preference is given to male 
over female, and to the elder over the younger branches. 



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PUBLIC BEVENUES. 86 



PUBLIC REVENUES. 



All public revenues are paid into the central chest of 
Funchal; this chest is under the guardianship of three 
keepers, the civil governor, the paymaster of the treasury, 
and the treasury delegate ; each of these has a key of the 
chest. The treasury delegate presides over a department 
charged with the collection of public revenue, and the direc- 
tion of public accounts ; he is answerable directly to the 
Lisbon government, although under the supervision of the 
civil governor. The paymaster of the treasury forms one of 
a tribunal, of which the civil governor and the delegado do 
procurador regio are the other members; this commission 
(junta) is charged with the sale of the produce of the na- 
tional properties and tithes. It also takes cognizance of 
appeals from the decisions of the director of customs. The 
director is accountable only to the Lisbon government, but 
the Custom House, over which he presides, is under the super- 
intendence of the civil governor. The revenues of the Cus- 
tom House, with the exception of the imposts on foreign 
grain, are paid into the central chest, and disposed of in the 
same manner as the other revenues of the treasury*. The 
amount annually paid into the public chest generally exceeds 
£41,672 13s. 4td, Government imposes a duty upon all im- 
ports into Madeira, except provisions. Protection is afforded 
on all articles of Portuguese production or manufacture, which, 
with the exception of wine, pay next to no duty on export or 

* The usual gross receipts of the Custom House average from £28,988 6s, Sd, 
to £25,003 per annum. In 1847, the receipts from customs amounted to 
£23,919 9s. 2d,; in 1848. they amounted to £21,785 5s. l^d.; and in 
1849, to £24,898 Is. lOd, These figures include the moneys accruing from 
the imposts on foreign grain, which moneys are paid to the Cameras, and not 
into the treasury. 



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86 PUBLTO BEYEMUSS. [chaf. IT. 

import. On Madeira wines the following duties are charged: 
^-on all exported to Portugal and its dependencies, Ss. 7|(/. 
per pipe; on all exported to foreign countries, £1 Ss. O^d. per 
pipe ; on all consumed in the island, the value of 4 canadas* 
is charged on each barrel of wine ; the wine of shipment pajB 
besides £\ 9s. Hd, for imposts and Custom-house dues. Meat 
pays in proportion of one pound in each arrofcaf, at its retail 
price. Fish pays six per cent, on its net value. These are 
termed indirect imposts. The direct imposts are the tithes, 
which are the tenth part of the productions of the land, with 
the exception of some vegetables and fruits. These, next to 
the customs, are the principal sources of revenue J. 

* A barrel of wine contains 28 eanadas, 

f An arroba contains 32 pounds. 

t The following extract from the treasury operations in the years 1848 
and 184d will give a clearer idea of the financial resources of Madeira. 
In 1848 there was a balance in the treasury from the last year of 
£7830 11«. 9|(2. ; the receipts from the customs, and from the coffers of 
the eoncdhos, were £30,481 8<. ll\d.; moneys replaced, £195 5s. 6\d,; 
deposits, £46 7«. S\d.; treasury receipts, £78 2t. 6d, The expenditure 
during that year, by order of Government, was £34,422 6s. lOd., making a 
total of £38,631 16«. ild. received, 
34,422 6 10 spent, 

£4,209 9 6| balance to next year. 
In 1849 there was a balance in the treasury from the last year of 
£4209 9s. 6ld.; the receipts from the customs were £22,768 19«. id.; 
from the coffers of the concelhos, £11,419 11«. id. ; moneys replaced, is. 2d. 
The expenditure during that year was, by order of the Minister of the 
Home Department, £3013 17s. dj^d.; by order of the Minister of Justice, 
£2768 11«. 6d. ; by order of the Minister of War, £16,136 19s. 9id. ; by 
order of the Minister of Marine, £961 Ss. 3f cf . ; by order of the Minister of 
Finance, £6296 5s. 9d. ; and by funds transferred, £2776 6s. 6d., making 

a total of 

£38,398 is. iid. received, 
31,943 9 4^ spent, 

£6,454 15 0^ balance to next year. 
To define the meaning of " funds transferred/' or of ** moneys rephicad," 



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OKAP.IY.] GOVBBNMENT MONOPOLIES. 87 

OOYEBNMENT MONOPOLIES. 

GoYemment nudntams monopolies of ao&p, tobacco, and 
urzeUa*: the penalties for infringing them are veiy severe; 

would not be so easy; the receipts ''from the coffers of the concelhott** 
howerer, require some explsnatioD. The particukrs of these receipts, in 
18^, are a« follows '.— 

£ ». d. 

Duties on patents 179 18 9^ 

Fiye per cent additional duty 137 7 7 

Tithes 8,756 6 6 

Fintoi (imposts) 288 18 1^ 

Diplomas 27 4 

Fmes 286 18 7J 

Stamps 201 5 6 

Stamps on licences 286 17 1 

Stamps on passports 73 17 

Printed licences 2 1 11 

Printed passports . 9 7^ 

Ten per cent, on the sale of real estates . . 1,157 lOf 

Educational firnd 1,292 3 8 

One-fifth of the revenue of crown prop^ty 

granted to individuals 48 14 8| 

Legacy duty 278 10 9 

Six per cent, on fish ......... 188 19 7 

Tax on meat 724 8 11 1 

Another tax on meat 876 3 11| 

Tax on wine 1,061 8 11 

Tax on fishing-boats 12 6 

Ground rents 191 8 6| 

Interest 474} 

Two and a half per cent, to landlord on trans- 
fer of ground rents 16 5 

Bents 711 18 11 

Undassed receipts 251 12 9^ 

£11,419 11 4 

* Urzdla, or orchil weed, is a lichen, or moss, used in making dye ; it 

was -formerly collected in great quantities on the Dezerta Islands, and in less 

^piantities on the Ponta de S<^ Laurence, and the north coasts of Madeira ; 

H was valued at £350 and upwards per ton, but from the large quantities 



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88 MILITABY AFFAIBS. [CHAF. XT. 

even the possession of contraband articles brings the owner 
within the lash of the law. 

Such restrictions as these are founded, no doubt, on narrow 
views of commerce and policy: many other particulars might 
be pointed out, in which the political relations of such coun- 
tries as Portugal with their colonies, and the condition of 
civil rights both in the dependencies and the mother country, 
are far different from, and fEur inferior to those ei\joyed by the 
subjects of the British crown. There is one respect, how- 
ever, in which countries that suffer from bad government may 
perhaps find some compensation for the want of a greater 
degree of public freedom; and that is, in a nearer approach 
at least to social and personal equality. Amongst these 
people, there does not appear to be so hard a line of de- 
marcation between the different orders of society as in some 
other countries. The manners of inferiors are less obse- 
quious, and those of superiors more easy ; the general level 
of society is more even, and less interrupted by abrupt and 
impassable barriers. 

MILITARY AFFAIRS. 

Madeira forms the ninth military division of Portugal. 
The military government of Funchal is committed to ofl&cers 
holding a rank not inferior to that of colonel. The force, 
which forms the present garrison of Madeira, is composed of 
the 6th Battalion of Ca^adores (light infantry), numbering 
445 men; a detachment of 21 men, from the 1st Eegimeut 

found of late years at Angola, and the other Portuguese settlements on the 
coast of Africa, the price has &llen to £50 per ton^ and little, if any, is now 
collected in Madeira. It is remarkable that the African orchil is gathered 
from trees ; any found on the stems of trees in Madeira, and the adjacent 
islands, was considered worthless as a dye, where none was employed unless 
it grew on rocks and stones near the sea-shore. 



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CHAP, nr.] ROADS. — ELECTIONS. 89 

of Artilleiy; and a militia of 1168 men, who serve in the 
forts along the sea-shore. All men, from 18 to 25 years of 
age, are liable to enlistment in the regular army. 

It has been remarked that the Portuguese, under good 
officers, make excellent soldiers ; Soult is said to have com- 
plained once to Napoleon, after haying engaged and been re- 
pulsed by Portuguese troops officered by Englishmen, that the 
English had taken an unfair advantage, and dressed their men 
in Portuguese clothes, thereby tempting him to attack them 
as the weakest part of the army. 

BOADS. 

All men, whether natives or foreigners, being permanent 
residents, and of sufficient age and strength to work, are 
obliged to contribute annually to the repairs and making of 
roads, five days' manual labour, or pay one dollar for their 
exemption. The estufa tax, of one dollar, 920 reis, per pipe 
of wine per annum, is likewise applicable to this purpose and 
the repairs of bridges. These means, if properly applied 
to the excellent materials which are furnished by the basaltic 
rocks, should ensure good highways. 

ELECTIONS. 

The elections in Madeira, as in the mother country, are 
carried on in the churches, the priests being required to 
identify the voters. The Portuguese who have 100 dollars 
annual income, choose within the limits of their council 
one or two electors, who go to the capital of the province, 
where they jointly choose four deputies; this election is by 
secret scrutiny in both instances. Madeira and Porto Santo 
together choose twenty-two electors, who elect four deputies 
to represent them in the Lisbon Cortes. 



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90 HABITATIOK8 OP THE POOR. — DRESS. [chap. iv. 

HABITATIONS OF THE POOR. 

The habitations of the poor in Madeira are of the hum- 
blest sort ; a few stones piled one above the other, a lew 
pine-sticks raised into a high roof, bonnd together with willow 
twigs and thatched with straw, form the ordinary style of the 
tenements of the lower classes. At a distance, these huts 
are often almost invisible from their colour, and you may 
appear to be at the first glance in a lonely country, which, on 
closer inspection, you discover to be thickly covered with 
these habitations. Near the shore sometimes, where there 
are seams of tufa, which is easily worked, the inhabitants 
scoop hovels for themselves out of the rock : at Camera de 
Lobos these habitations seen from the sea have the appear- 
ance of a rabbit-warren. 

DRESS. 

The dresB of the peasantry is as scanty as is consistent 
with decency; a pair of linen drawers fall and reaching 
dovm to the knees, together with a loose linen shirt, is the 
common dress of the men; sometimes a jacket is thrown 
loosely over the left arm. The more genteel have adopted 
trowsers, and long yellow boots turned over at the top cover 
the toes of such as are ashamed of producing them. The 
cap resemUes an inverted funnel, covermg no nH)i« than the 
crown of the head, and made of blue cloth lined with red. 
With southern civility they doff their car^qmga to every one 
they meet ; they might put to shame many a would-be gen- 
tleman by the graceful eafie with which they salute each 
other, and the unassuming uncringing manner with which 
they comport themselves towards either equals or superiors. 
The dress of the women is simple and pretty; the native 



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chap.it.] beauty. — MANUFACTURES. 93 

boddice and the red cape being peculiarly becoming to the 
young girls; they wear the same carapu^a as the men. 
With a great many, that substitute for the mantilla, a hand- 
kerchief, is tiie popular head-dress. 

BEAUTY. 

You must not look for many pretty faces in Madeira after 
the age of thirteen, amongst the upper classes inertness, 
and amongst the lower hard work, reduce the standard of 
beauty. The upper class of women are hardly ever seen in 
the streets, save on their road to mass or when going to 
pay a visit; on these occasions all the jewels, plate, and 
ribbons of apparently very ancient fiamilies are to be seen 
in full display. The ladies generally live on their bal- 
conies watching passers-by. The English ladies going to 
church draw forth many fiEdr beholders and critics, and on 
Sundays the balconies are lined with native fashion. The 
glory of the Madeira women are their hair, which is of the 
richest growth smd blackest hue, and their eyes, which are 
dark and bright. 

MANUFACTUBES. 

The manu&ctures of Madeira are as follows: candles; 
shoes ; straw-hats ; baskets, of every shape ; chairs, of straw 
and wicker-work ; ladies* ornamental chains made of horse- 
hair; all sorts of woodwork, in which the joiners are very 
expert, especially in inlaid work of various woods, superior to 
that produced at Tunbridge : they have an advantage in the 
diversity and beauty of the many kinds of wood grown on the 
island, but they add to this a superior skill and taste in the 
art of marqiLetry, and construct ornamental chairs, tables, 
chessboards, paper-cutters, card-cases, book-racks, walking- 



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92 MANUFAOTUBES. [chap, it 

Sticks, &c.; the jewellers* work is rough, hut jewellery is 
more than commonly ahundant, owing perhaps to the hreak- 
ing up of many old families of the ancient proprietors, when 
their precious stones and other valuahles came into the 
market. The women are famous for their beautiful needle- 
work, and the nuns very skilful in imitating flowers with 
dyed feathers. The young girls plying the distaff at the 
doors of the houses by the roadside add a picturesque effect 
to the scenery : these distaffs are made simply of the Arundo 
donaa, split and bowed into the proper shape at the top. 

There is a manufacture by handlooms of coarse linen 
and stuffs, which are worn by the country folk. Pottery, of 
an inferior texture, is made from materials furnished by the 
finer beds of red tufa ; and leather is tanned on a small scale 
for island use. 



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CHAPTER V. 

ON THE AGRICULTURE OF MADEIRA. 



" Nor ye who live 
In luznrj and ease, in pomp and pride, 
Tliink these lost themes unworthy of your ear: 
Such themes as these the rural Maro sung 
To wide-imperial Rome, in the full height 
Of elegance and taste, hy Greece refined. 
Ye generous Britons, venerate the plough." 

Thoxbov. 



Introduction of the Tine and sugar-cane. — Clearing the forests. — Cultiya- 
tion of the sugar-cane.— Cultivation of the vine. — Different soils. — Best 
wine districts. — Kinds of wines. — Manu&cture of wine. — Cultivation of 
com. — Manure. — Threshing. — Ghnndingcom. — Maice. — Flax. — Potatoes. 
— Yams. — Weeds. — Pine trees. — Sheep.— Cows. — Instruments of hus- 
bandry. — Le vadas. — Dearths. — Labouring classes. — Wages. — Relation 
between landlord and tenant 

To the provident care of Prince Henry, Madeira was indebted 
for its first supply of agricultural seeds, plants, and domestic 
animals. 

Amongst the plants, the yine from Cyprus, and the sugar- 
cane from Sicily*, throve so prosperously that they soon 
became important articles in Portuguese commerce. 

CLEABINO THE FORESTS. 

The new colony set to work immediately clearing the 
ground. For this purpose they fired the great forests, which 
are said to have burnt with such violence that several of the 
people were forced to take refuge in their boats. According 

* The sugar-cane, we learn from Huguet Falcand, a writer of that 
period, was known in Sicily as early as the twelfth century. 



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94 CULTIVATION OF THE 8UGAB-CANE AND VINE. [OHAP. ▼. 

to the accounts transmitted to us, this fire smouldered on for 
near seven years *; the consequence was, that the soil was so 
enriched hj the vast quantity of wood ashes as to acquire an 
extraordinary degree of fertility!. A vicious system of agri- 
culture, or rather a total ahsence of any system, soon ex- 
hausted the soil of this exuherance I. 

CULTIVATION OP THE SUGAR-CANE. 

The early ahandonment of the manufacture of sugar in 
Madeira has heen attributed by some to a blight which is said 
to have attacked the canes. It is probable, however, that the 
Portuguese, finding this plant could be grown with more profit 
elsewhere, transferred it to the island of St. Thomas, on the 
west coast of Africa, from whence it found its way to the 
West Indies. There are now but four sugar mills left in 
Madeira; the wheels are worked by oxen, and the process of 
crushing the cane is worth seeing. The juice is carried oflF 
by a pipe into coppers, where it is boiled, fermented, and 
converted into rum and molasses. The cane is also chewed 
by the natives for food. 

CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. 

The staple of the agriculture of Madeira, and the principal 
object which occupies its population, is the vine. Vines were 

* /. De Barrot, dec. i* 

f " The woods which gave name to the island were fired, and burnt so 
foriooBly, that the people were forced to go tome space into the sea from the 
violent 4ieat, which cansed sach a fatness to the soil that at first it yielded 
tiireescore fold ; since, half so much." {Purchais PUgrimt, 1626, b. 7, 
chap. ziL p. 784.) A, Cadamotto says, that the vines brought finrth more 
clusters of grapes than leaves, and that the produce of the island in com 
amounted to 80,000 Venetian measures called Stares, each being equal to 
133 lbs. 

t Ovington, p. 10. 



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^HAP. T.J DIFFERENT SOILS. 95 

formerly planted at a depth of only twenty inches, and some- 
times, though never very generally, by means of a plough. 
The instrument was dragged over and over the same ground, 
till the required depth was attained. Such a practice has 
long since ceased ; indeed, there are very few places in the 
island, from its rocky nature, where a plough could penetrate 
twenty inches into the soil. The vine in the south is now 
always planted in trenches, varying from four to six feet in 
depth. The depth of the trench is regulated by the nature 
of the soil. The object in cutting so deep is to allow the 
roots of the vine to penetrate suflBciently far through the 
fresh turned earth, to prevent their being dried by the effects 
of the sun, and a long- continued season of drought, when 
water for irrigation is scarce. Lumps of 'pedra molle, and other 
stones, are placed at the bottom of the trench to keep the 
earth loose, and prevent the roots of the vines from reaching 
the stiff soil below. The trenches are filled up slantingly 
one-third of their depth, the baceUo, or cutting, never being 
planted lower than two-thirds of the depth opened. The new 
roots shoot mainly from the upper part of the baceUo, and at 
no great distance from the surface of the ground : the part 
below the roots decays and rots off. When rooted vines are 
planted they are not put in so deep, although the ground is 
trenched in the same msmner as for hacellos. 

DIFFERENT SOILS. 

The names given to the different kinds of soil in which the 
vine is planted are saibro (decomposed red tufa), cascalho 
(stony soil), pedra moUe (an arenaceous soil, of decomposed 
yellow tufa), and massapis (clay resulting from the decompo- 
sition of dark tufas). The vine lasts the longest in saibro 
and eascalho. In pedra molle and massapis it produces at 



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96 B£8T WINE DISTBICTS. [chap. v. 

first more freely, but the wine is weaker in body, and the 
plant is soon worn out. The best soil, both for wine and 
the endurance of the vine, is saibro with a mixture of stones, 
the plant being always partial to stony or rocky ground. 

B£ST WINE DISTRICTS. 

The finest wines of Madeira are produced in the parishes 
of Camera de Lobos, S"? Martinho, and S^ Pedro ; in the 
lower parts of Santo Antonio, the Estreito de Camera de 
Lobos, Campanario, S^ Roque, and S^ Gon9alo. The upper 
parts of the five last parishes produce only second and third- 
rate wines. The finest Malmsey and Sercial are from the 
Fajaa dos Padres, at the foot of Cabo Girao, and from the 
Paul and Jardim do Mar. 

The best vine to graft on is the stock of the Malmsey. 
The best vine to plant in the south is the Verdelho, It is 
obtained either from the north or from the Curral das Freiras. 

The length of time that a vineyard will last depends as 
much on the cultivator as on the quality of his soil. Where 
the farmer is careless, or intent only on his bemfeitorms*y the 
vines are often huddled into the ground close together, when 
they grow up weak and sickly, yield comparatively but little 
fruit, and die off in eight or ten years, unless forced to exist 
a few years longer by parsimonious doses of manure. A pru- 
dent cultivator will plant his vines ten or twelve pdlmosjf 
apart, when in the same ground, with proper treatment, the 
plants will yield better, and last from fifty to a hundred 
years. 

The vines, excepting in the north of the island, where they 
luxuriate wild on the branches of the chestnut trees, are 

* Explained at page 108. t Spani. 



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CHAP, v.] BEST WIKE DISTRICTS. 97 

trained on a sort of trellis- work made of the Arundo donax, to 
wbich they are bound by split shoots of willow. This frame- 
woriL, when the leaves are off, has the appearance, as you look 
down upon it from the hills, of nets spread on the ground. 
One or more walks intersect each vineyard. Along these 
walks, wooden pillars about seven feet high are erected at 
regular distances^ to support frames which slope down from 
them on each side to within two feet of the ground. At this 
elevation the reeds extend over the whole vineyard. There is 
barely room for men to creep under these lattice-works either 
for the purpose of weeding, pruning, or gathering the grapes. 

An alqmire* of ground, being soil of the best description 
and well cultivated, will produce in an average year from 
twelve to fifteen barrels of wine, of which twelve go to the 
pipe. If the soil is of medium quality, and well cultivated, it 
will produce from eight to ten barrels. Ground of either best 
or medium quality in bad hands will not produce more than one 
or two barrels. In bad land, of course, no vines are planted. 

The exportation of wine from Madeira and Porto Santo 
during the last three years has averaged 6738 pipes, whereas 
the amount grown has averaged 15,887 pipes. This leaves 
the large amount of 0149 pipes annually consumed in the 
island, or converted into brandy. The largest amount is 
drunk by boatmen and burroqtieroSf who spend about one- 
third of their means in a liquor, which comes under the deno- 
mination of low wine. Of the wine exported from the island 

* An algueire of ground contains 15,625 square pcUmos; the pcUmo is 
equal to 8^ English inches. A difference in measurements exisljii in some 
parts of Madeira ; for instance, in Camera de Lobos 5 paXmos correspond to 
43 inches ; at Santa Anna a palmo equals 9 inches; and at Machico a palmo 
equals 8 inches. In. different kinds of measurements the value of a palmo 
varies even in Funchal, -where the land surveyors, in measuring walls, use 
the pcUmo oi 9 Bnglish inches, instead of 8^. 

P 



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98 KINDS OP WINES. — ^MANUFAOTUBB OP WINE. [chap. v. 

one-third may be considered of the finest quality, one-third of 
a medium quality, and one-third as low wine. The first cost 
of the wine at the press (before fermentation) has this year 
been from £2 \0s. to £12 10«. per pipe. 

KINDS OP WINES. 

The names of the different kinds of wine produced in 
Madeira are — Malvazia, Sercial, Tinta, Bool, Verddho, 
Ba$tardo, Negrinho, and Maroto, all made from grapes 
bearing those names. The three last are seldom seen, and 
the Negrinho and Maroto are a bad species of grape, always 
used in the manufacture of vir^o verde, or refuse wine. The 
wine called Madeira is made principally from the Verdelko 
grape, with an admixture of Tinta and BooX : the first gives it 
body, the two latter flavour. The ordinary Bastardo is a black 
grape, which yields a light-coloured wine; the Bastardo branco 
is rare. The Ttnta, or, as it is sometimes called, Negra moUe, 
gives a dark colour to new wines. When it is made into wine 
by itself, the husk is separated firom the stalk and fermented 
with the juice of the grape, otherwise the Tinta wine would be 
wanting in the peculiarities of colour and flavour which dis* 
tinguish it. 

MANUPAGTUBE OP WINE. 

To make fine wine it is essential that the grapes should be 
fully ripe. The ripeness is judged of by the softness of the 
bunches, which lose their rigidity when the sap ceases to 
enter them. All unripe grapes, and those of inferior 
sorts, must be carefully picked out and put aside for the 
vinho verde. When the wine press is full the grapes are 
trodden, and then pressed under the beam of the lagdr*. 

* Wine press. 



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OHAP. v.] CULTIVATION OF COBN. 99 

The must is carried away in goat-skins and transferred to 
casks, there to undergo fermentation. When the violence 
of the fermentation is over, that is to say, in ten or twelve 
days, it is an approved practice to throw into each cask two or 
three pounds of powdered gypsum, stirring it up in the wiftes 
daily for the next ten days. The gypsum i6 said to take up 
the watery particles of the wine, and prevent its becoming 
ropy : the fermentation then gradually subsides, and at the 
end of six or ei^t weeks the lees are racked off, and a gallon 
or two of brandy added to each pipe. 

Madeira wines are considerably advanced and matured by 
heat. It is a common thing to give these wines a passage to 
the East or West Indies, before they are landed in England. 

The heat of a ship's hold in India, or of a sugar-laden 
ship in Jamaica, sometimes exceeds 110° of Fahrenheit. By 
some, the wine is ripened at home in stoves ; the abuse of 
which, by giving a false appearance of age to inferior wines, 
has at various times been prejudicial to the trade of the island. 

The countrymen calculate that one-tenth of the produce of 
a vineyard is destroyed by flies, lizards, and rats. 

CULTIVATION OF COBN. 

Wheat is cultivated as high as Santo Antonio da Serra, 
about 2400 feet above the sea. The hard transparent kinds 
are preferred by the natives, from an opinion that the flour 
rises better in baking ; no very white flour, however, is pre- 
pared from such wheat. The sample appears inferior to many 
from England ; but the native com bears a higher price in 
Madeira, partly perhaps from being cleaner than that which 
comes on ship-board from Europe and America. The wheat of 
the highlands is different from that grown nearer the sea-shore ; 
what is produced on the former ground resembles Odessa 

F 2 



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100 MANURE. [CHAP. T. 

wheat, the natives call it rapoza; the grain of the low lands, 
which they call anajpU, is finer. In the lighter soils, in a 
good year, the yield is only from three to five fold : in better 
land from seven to eight fold is obtained ; and under the most 
favourable circumstances fourteen or fifteen fold is sometimes 
produced. Wheat is not unfrequently sown in continual suc- 
cession, the same seed on the same land. 

When any rotation of green crops with grain is attempted, 
com is sown one year, and lupines the next; then com 
again; or com for two years, and lupines for one. When 
lupines are sown for the purpose of manuring the land, the 
practice is to dig them into the ground when they come into 
flower, whether it be in wheat lands or vineyards. It would 
be well if they were oftener employed in this manner; un- 
fortunately many cultivators are disposed to consider it a loss 
of their lupines. In some parts of the island, the com is 
followed by beans and sweet potatoes {Convolvulm batata), 
the latter being dug up at the end of six months; when 
the sweet potato is planted with the vine, it is allowed to 
remain in the ground a twelvemonth ; the leaf is used as 
food for cattle, but horses will not eat it. 

MAKUBE. 

But little manure is used, and no pains taken to preserve 
it. The landlord has a right to one-half of the straw pro- 
duced, which he generally sells, and the tenant is not obliged 
to consume his proportion of the straw on the land he culti- 
vates. Thus it has a very small part of its own produce 
restored to it. When com is sown on land where the wild 
broom grows, the process of cultivation is this: — the broom is 
cut, strewn on the side of the hill, and then set on fire ; 
without further preparation, the com is sown on the ashes. 



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CHAP. V.J 



THRESHING. — GBIKBING COBN. 



101 



A poor crop is obtained, and when the broom has grown 
again, in about six years that is, the same process is repeated*^ 

THRESHING* 

The general mode of extracting the wheat from the ear is 
by driving oxen, attached to a light sledge in which a number 
of small sharp stones are fixed, round the circular earthen 
threshing floors, which are placed at the comers of the 
fields ; in some parishes the flail is used ; barley is almost 
always threshed out with flails, or with short thick handclubs. 
The grinding was formerly a monopoly, the exclusive right of 
it belonging to one fiamily ; now every one is free to grind 
for himself. 

GRINDING CORN. 

The water-mills which grind the larger quantities of com, 
are worked by a single horizontal wheel. The supply of 
water is obtained from a levada, beneath which the mill is 




HORIZONTAL WHBBL MILL. 



built : the water falls on the wheel through a pipe of wood, 
broad at the top, and gradually Idss towards the end. For 



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102 MAIZE*— FLAX. — POTATOES. [chap. t. 

Indian com hand-mills are used, made of the common scoria- 
cious hasalt: in these mills, the upper stone fits into the 
lower one, as a conical stopper into a bottle ; it is turned by 




HAVD-MILL. 



a fixed upright stick; this stick is firequently tied at the 
upper end to the branch of a tree, to give more purchase. 

MAIZE. 

An attempt is now being made to introduce several varieties 
of the mUho, or maize, in some parts of the north of the 
island; it is intended that it should supersede the vine, 
which bears no fruit capable of making good wine in those 
districts. One enterprising gentleman imported some men 
from the Western Islands, where they are excellent farmers, 
to teach the labourers the cultivation of this grain. 

FLAX. 

A great deal of flax is grown on the northern side of the 
island ; in such a climate, the New Zealand flax {Phofmium 
tenaa) might be cultivated with great advantage. 

POTATOES. 

Potatoes yield about five crops in two years. This plant 
has not here escaped the blight which affected it in other 
parts of the world, and its loss was severely felt by a popula- 
tion dependent on the cheapest description of food; in event 



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CHAP. T.] lAMS. — ^WEEDB. — PINE TREES. 103 

of its continued failure, the Chenopodium quinoa, which has, 
I helieve, been successfully grown in Madeira by one or two 
persons, might, from its hardy and nutritiye qualities, become 
a useful substitute. 

TAKS. 

The yam of the West Indies and the coast of Africa is 
unknown in Madeira. The plant the natives call inhame the 
English have corrupted into yam, from the similarity of 
pronunciation. The inhame is a species of arum {Arum cdto- 
oasia). There are two kinds in Madeira, the white and the 
red, the latter requiring more water than the former ; to 
plant it, a trench is cut near some spring and filled with 
branches of broom, which are covered with earth ; in this the 
root is placed and left to shoot downwards through the 
branches. It is a wretched vegetable, and pigs are the only 
animals that will eat the leaf. 

WEEDS. 

In Madeira the very weeds of the soU realize a profit; 
these are worth five pence a bundle in the market as horse 
fodder; they luxuriate everywhere undisturbed amongst 
the choicest plants : the vines alone, and those in fruiting 
months only, are freed from such noxious companionship. 

PIKE TREES. 

The pine has been brought into extensive cultivation on 
the hills; it flourishes on the red tufa, where nothing else will 
grow. The pines are sown thickly, and at the end of five 
years they are ready for their first thinning ; the process is 
commonly repeated each succeeding year for seventeen years. 
The leaves are used as bedding for cattle, and the cones 



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104 SHEEP. — COWS.— 1K8TBUMENT8 OF HUSBANDBT. [CHAP. v. 

are collected and sold for fuel, after the seed has been shaken 
out to yield its share of profit. 

SHEEP. 

The sheep of th^ island are of the Spanish hooked-nose 
breed, very small, and of no excellence either for meat or 
wool. An English gentleman tried to introduce the South- 
down breed, but he found thej were not hardy enough for 
the cloud-capped serras« When he told his Portuguese hind 
that he had given ten and eleven dollars apiece for them in 
England, the man shrugged his shoulders and said, "You 
might have spent your money better, senhor" The same 
gentleman afterwards tried crossing the breed with the native 
animals : the cross succeeds well, giving a better flavour and 
more flesh to the scraggy mountaineers. 

cows. 

The Madeira cows, though they produce good working b6is, 
are bad milkers both as regards quantity and quality. One 
would think that the constant importation of Aldemeys in 
the traders must in time improve the breed ; though perhaps 
the roughness of the pasturage has a good deal to do with 
the poverty of the milk. The landlords sometimes furnish 
their tenants with cattle, and share the profits of the sale. 

INSTBUMENTS OF HUSBANDBT. 

The instruments employed in agriculture are a plough, 
very similar to the old Roman one described by Virgil, and 
the enchtuUt, or pick, with which they grub up the ground. 
The introduction of an English plough was attempted on 
some ground two thousand four hundred feet above the level 
of the sea ; an English labourer was also imported to teach 



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CHAP, v.] LEVADAS^ 10& 

the use of it ; nothing, however, could be made of the people 
or their oxen, which had been trained to work as ill as their 
masters. The harrow has met with more success. This it 
must be remembered is on a serra, or elevated plain ; the 
hill-side cultivation scarcely admits of the use of ordinary 
agricultural implements, 

LEYADAS. 

The levddas, or courses for the water, tpre wonderful works ; 
they are the result of the labour of centuries, and are still in 
progress. The water is gathered by them from its sources in 
the mountains; sometimes running through the solid rock, 
and sometimes along the sides of perpendicular cliffe, where 
it is difficult to conceive how workmen could ever labour; 
sometimes carried in wooden pipes over your head; and some- 
times gliding near your feet, and refreshing you as you toil 
up the precipitous roads under a hot sun. By these levddas 
means of irrigation are afforded to each tenement. Each has 
a right to let the water on to his land in turn, and there is a 
monthly cycle, or giro, divided into so many hours, made for the 
regulation of such turns. The right ta water for irrigation is 
held by title deeds, in the same manner as any other pro- 
perty, and ii^ these deeds the number of hours in each giro 
of a levdda is declared. In some levddas the giro is thirty 
days, in some more, and in others less. There is frequently 
a good deal of partiality on the part of the levddeiro, the 
person to whom the division of the water in the main course 
is intrusted. Here, where water is riches, there are more 
quarrels and lawsuits about this than any other kind of pro- 
perty; and those who do not carefully watch it, when their 
turn comes round, may reckon upon being robbed of the 
greater part of their water. 

. p 3 



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106 DEABTH8. [chap. ▼. 

DEABTH8. 

At divers times a want of rain and other causes have com- 
bined to create grievous dearths in the island * ; in the year 

* The following tables of prodactioni, imports, and exports, maj serre to 
give general notions on the self-supporting capabilities of lladeira : — 
Maddia produced the following quantity of pulse and gr^ in the yean 

1847. 1848. 1849. 

Beans 104^ 133 

Kidney beans 240^ 281] 

LentiU 8 7 11 

Barley 508i 460^ 588} 

Bye 2591 2dl| 85H 

Indian com 23 46 182 

Wheat 2469 1169^ 8060J 

These quantities are reckoned in moios. There are 3 quarters English in 
a moio, and each quarter is 20 tUqueirts, or 8 bndiela Winchester measnie. 

The importations of pulse and grain to Madeira from Portugal and its 
dependencies were as follows, in the years 

1847. 1848. 1849. 

Horse beans 65 48 62 

Kidney beans 211 2 10 

Black-eyed peas 14 1 

Lupines 1 15 

Bariey 1| 4f 18J 

Bye 117f 108 69| 

Indian com 8391 2714 8216 

Wheat 1028 1797 2088 

And fiNMn foreign countries during the same period — 

Horse beans 1 

Kidney beans 8 

Oats 84} 

Bariey . . . . ' 58 8 

Bye 4 316 55J 

Indian com 5055 6894 7690 

Wheat 2770 8095 2193 

The yalue of all articles^ exclusive of wine, exported from the island of 
Madeira to Portugal and its dependencies was, in 1848, £1584 12<. Sd, ; in 
1849, £1628 15s, 9d. : and to foreign ports, in 1848, £1628 7t. lid,; and 
in 1849, £1759 12«. Id. 



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CHAV. v.] LABOUBING GLASSES. — WAGES, ETO. 107 

1847 the failure of the potato, together with the famine in 
Ireland, which opened a better market for com elsewhere, 
produced great distress in Madeira; at this time the mercan- 
tile dass came forward nobly, to assist the sufferers, by a 
handsome subscription towards a loan fund for importing pro- 
Tisicms. 

LABOUBING CLASSES. 

The labouring classes in general are a fine set of men, but 
they cannot be said to be hard workers ; they exert themseWes 
for a time with much spirit, and in some kinds of work are 
capable of great endurance ; but they are wanting in perse- 
verance. Their food seems not to be such as is most condu- 
cive to the development of muscular vigour. Part of the 
year they subsist chiefly on chestnuts ; the yam, the sweet 
potato, the Indian com, and the lupine, form, with the 
tunny fish, the complement of their diet. The yam is but a 
moderate food ; the sweet potato is better ; the Indian com, 
united with the tunny, or with dried mackerel, is the best 
fare of the bulk of the population. 

WAGES. 

Fi^e pence a day and food are reckoned good wages in the 
country; a man, however, seldom gets six days' work together. 
In fBiCt, but little money passes firom hand to hand ; work is 
done chiefly on the give and take system of America, i. e., I 
do so much work for you to-day, on condition that you do so 
much for me to-morrow. In town, wages vary from one 
shilling to fifteen pence per diem, 

BELATION BETWEEN LANDLORD AND TENANT. 

The land in Madeira is generally cultivated by eokmos 
(tenants), under a peculiar tenant law. If the tenant resides 



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108 BELATION BETWEEN [cha». ▼. 

on the ground he leases, he is caUed a eateiro, from the ca$a 
or house he occupies ; otherwise he is called a miyro, from 
the meyo or half produce that he gives his landlord. The 
owner of the land is called the unhorio; he generally pos- 
sesses nothing hut the land ! the tenant is usually owner of 
everything on it, such as trees, vines, walls, houses, emhank- 
ments, &c., to which the name of bemfeitorias (improvements) 
is given. The tenant pays to his landlord one-half of all 
the produce of the land. The wine and com are strictly 
looked after; hut the verduras, such as potatoes, cab- 
bages, lupines, &c., are often unaccounted for by the tenants. 
The landlord by right can demand one-half of the grass, but 
it is rarely done ; when the landlord and tenant quarrel, and 
the former refuses to give his share of grass to the latter, the 
tenant cannot in this case dispose of his own half of it. Where 
the landlord is needy, as the greater part now are, this sys- 
tem gives rise to a constant watching and suspicion on both 
sides, anything but conducive to the mutual good under- 
standing which is essential to the due cultivation of the land. 
Few of the landlords are now resident on their estates, and 
where the steward, or feitor, is too rigorous in. exacting his 
master's due, he receives very unequivocal marks of the dis- 
approbation of the tenants. Few tenements exceed an acre, 
but the greater part are not more. than one-eighth of that 
size. When the leases are farmed out to a middle-man, or 
rendeiro, the tenants are sometimes treated with great oppres- 
sion. The landlord cannot turn off his tenant, without com- 
pensating him for all his useful improvements, except houses, 
for which he is not obliged to pay unless they were built with 
his permission. The tenant, when he obtains leave to build 
a house, is generally obliged to pay annually a trifling ac- 
knowledgment to his landlord, such as a fowl, a dozen eggs. 



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CHAP. ▼.] LANDLORD AND TENANT. 109 

or the like. The bemfeitorias are valued by two ofl&cers 
appointed by the camera, who generally put an excessive 
price on everything; a practice which, where the landlord 
is poor, goes far towards creating a perpetuity of tenure. 
The tenant can sell his improvements without asking his 
landlord's consent, and the landlord can dispose of his ground 
without communicating his intention to the tenant. 

Government takes a tithe of the proceeds of an estate, 
before the division is made between landlord and tenant. 

The contracto de colonial or tenure, does not finish with 
the death of the landlord or tenant, but continues with their 
heirs, and with such as may purchase the land or the im- 
provements upon it. 



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X. 



CHAPTEE VI. 



THE NATUBAL HISTOBT AND GEOLOGY 



MADEIRA. 




From a Sketch by Lady Susan Vernon HarcourU 

Bananas. 



See page llA. 



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CHAPTER VI. 

ON THE NATUBAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF MADEIRA. 

" Sweet contemplation eleviri^s my sense. 
While I survey the works of Providence. 
O could the Muse in loftier strains r^earse 
The glorious Author of the Universe, 
My soul should overflow in songs of praise, 
And my Creator's name inspire my laysl '' 

Gat. 

Fire on the south of the island. — Forests on the north side. — Dragon tree. 
— Urze. — Palm trees. — Opuntia. — Fruits and Vegetables. — Flowers. — 
Plants peculiar to Madeira. — Birds. — Reptiles. — Insects. — Fishes. — 
Turtles. — Corals. — Medusae Luminosity of the ocean. — Geology. 

So many exotics have been introduced into Madeira, into a 
soil and climate favourable to a great range of vegetation, 
that it is now difficult to draw any line between those which 
are reaUy indigenous and others. 

FIRE ON THE SOUTH OF THE ISLAND. 

On the south side, the woods have never raised their heads 
since the great fire which destroyed them on the first coloniza- 
tion of the island. In the north, the forests still retain a 
great deal of their pristine grandeur, though the axe, ruthless 
as the flame, is as surely, though more slowly, doing the work 
of destruction*. 

* There is a regulation, which, if tUtended to, would be productive of very 
beneficial results, that no one shall cut down a tree on the Serras, without 
permission from the municipal authorities of the district ; and furthermore, 
all trees growing within a radius of one hundred paces of any fountain, are 



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112 FORESTS ON THE NOBTH SIDE. — ^UBZE. [chap. ▼!. 

FORESTS ON THE NORTH SIDE. 

These forests are composed chiefly of the family of 
LauruSy such as the TTl(Lauru$fatm8), the Vinhatico (Laurus 
indica); and of other families, the Folhado, the Teixo, 
Azevinho, Pao Branco, &c. The Til, which grows to a 
very large size, is of a dark colour, and the inner wood is 
quite black. In the hands of cabinet-makers it produces very 
handsome furniture, and in the course of time loses its dis- 
agreeable smell. The Vinhatico is the Madeiran mahogany, 
not differing much from that wood in colour, and being appli- 
cable to similar uses ; its bark is used in making a brown dye. 
The most remarkable tree, though there are not at present 
any growing here of great size, is the Dragon tree (Dra- 
cana draco). It has been found, as Humboldt observes, 
in the Canaries, and in Madeira and Porto Santo, from the 
earliest times: varieties of it occur in South Africa, the 
Isle of Bourbon, and New Zealand. At Oratava, in Tene- 
riffe, I saw a Dragon tree, celebrated both for its extra- 
ordinary magnitude and age. At the time of the Spanish 
and Norman invasions, in 1402, it was said to have been as 
large in the stem as now, that is to say, forty-eight feet in 
circumference. 

^ URZE. 

The Urzey or arborescent heath, is what is principally used 
for firewood in the town, 'the cariying large bundles of this 
and other woods on their heads to Funchal is computed to give 

prohibited from being felled. If the goyeniment would take npon itself the 
regulation of wood cutting for fuel, and establish a regular cycle of years 
for felling trees in different districts, the total loss of the future means 
pf supply might be prevented. 



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CHAP. vi.J PALM TREES. OPUNTIA. 113 

occupation to one-fifth of the inhabitants of the island. As the 
Cactus form is almost entirely American, so the heath form, 
says Humboldt, specially belongs to the Old World, but more 
particularly to the African continent and islands. 

The Madeiran Cedar (Juniperus oxycedras) is a tree of very 
graceful growth, which is said to have abounded greatly 
when the island was first discovered; now it is rarely met 
with in a wild state. 

The most valuable of the trees which have been intro- 
duced into the island is the Spanish chestnut, which fur- 
nishes food to the population in some of the higher grounds. 
The Oak, which is of later introduction, may be said to be in 
leaf all the year, for the yoimg leaves begin to appear early in 
February, and the last year's foliage is never quite gone 
at that time. Two varieties of pines, the Stone Pine and 
the Pinaster, grow well in the tufa. 

PALM TREES. 

Palm trees are not of very frequent occurrence, and are 
shorn of their beauty for the religious ceremonies, the leaves 
being in requisition on Palm Sunday to adorn the churches. 
According to Humboldt, the true climate of palms has a 
mean annual temperature of TS*'-^ to 81°-6. 

OPUNTLA.. 

An Opuntia *, or prickly pear, grows luxuriantly on the 
most barren places. It is not turned to^the ^une account by 
the cultivation of the cochineal insect on it, as in Tenenfie, 
where upwards of sixty thousand pounds' worth of this valu- 
able dye is annually exported. The atmosphere of Madeira 

* The frait of this plant is eaten. 



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114 FRUITS AND YB6ETABLES. [chap. Tl. 

is said to be too humid for the insect to thrive in, bat the ex- 
periment has scarcely been tried. 



FBUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

The fruits which are brought here to the greatest per- 
fection, in addition to the grape, are the orange and the fig, to 
which may be added the mulberry : the lemon also, and the 
poifiegranate, with the strawberry and apple, represent the 
products of a temperate latitude ; whilst the pineapple, the 
guava, the mango, the shaddock, the custard apple, the 
papaw, the Japan meddlar, and the banana *, ripen, a tropical 
fruitage, without assistance from art All European vegeta- 
bles grow to perfection. 

At the Jardim, Mr. Veitch has succeeded in growing rice 
and the principal varieties of the tea plant, at an elevation of 
three thousand feet above the sea. 

The Tchu-tchu {Sechium edule)^ or pepineUa, as the natives 
call it, is an excellent vegetable ; it is a creeper, and grows so 
luxuriantly that one seed is sufficient to cover a whole house 
with its produce. It resembles vegetable marrow in sub- 
stance, but is superior in flavour, and is even said to improve 
the taste and quality of bread when added to wheaten flour 
Arrowroot is produced abundantly and of good quality in 
Madeira. Pumpkins grow to a very large size, and are used 
by the natives as the chief ingredient of their favourite dish, 
the 86pa Portugueza. The coflee tree flourishes in their 
grounds, and plentifully supplies their tables. 



* '' T if almoft a erime inexpiable to cut this fruit with a knife, which 
after disiection giyes a fiEiint similitude of our Saviour crucified ; and this 
they say is to wound his sacred image." — OvingtofCs Voyage toSuraU, 1689. 



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CHAP.vi.] FLOWERS. — ^PLANTS PBCULIAB TO MADEIRA, ETC. 115 
FLOWERS. 

The flowers of every country thrive carelessly in ihe gardens. 
The fuchsias are formed into perpetual hedges, and horses 
are fed with the clippings. Camellias attain the height of 
from fifteen to twenty-five feet. A stranger being told that 
there were fine camellias grown at the Palheiro, went up 
there for the purpose of seeing them, but sought them in 
vain, and was coming away disappointed, when it was hinted 
to him to look up, and there, far out of reach, he saw the 
wax-like flowers of purest white and darkest scarlet. Myrtle 
trees are to be seen, which are more than three feet in cir- 
cumference, and the Urze grows to a similar size. The 
Magnolia, the Solandra, the Datura, the Judas tree, the 
Spike Coral, the Turpentine tree, the Camphor laurel, seve- 
ral varieties of Acacia, the Eucalyptus and the Strelitzia, the 
Justicia, the Crista Galli (Erythrina), the Oleander, the Eu- 
phorbia, the Hibiscus, and many other beautiful flowering 
shrubs, are amongst the ornaments of a Madeira garden. 

PLANTS PECULLAR TO MADEIRA. 

Humboldt says, that " though the whole archipelago con- 
tains several plants found in Portugal, in Spain, at the Azores, 
and in the north-west of Africa, a great number of species, 
and even genera, are peculiar to Teneriffe, to Porto Santo, 
and Madeira. Such are the Mocanera, the Plocama, the 
Bosea^ the Canarina, and the Drusa." 

BIRDS. 

The birds of Madeira are less numerous than might be 
expected in so genial a climate, and most of them, where they 
differ from European species, are merely varieties. 



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116 BIRDS THAT BBEED IN MADEIRA DB9CBIBBD. chap. vi. 

BIBDS THAT BBEED IN MADEIBA DESCRIBED. 

The Kestrels are very numerous and very tame, perching 
on the roofs of houses, from- whence they dart frequently at 
Canary hirds hanging in their reed cages outside the win- 
dows, and generally succeed in securing their prey. They 
live principally on lizards, grasshoppers, and mice. 

The Buzzard is seldom seen ahout the town, hut confines 
his flights to the highest mountains, feeding on small hirds, 
insects, and reptiles. 

The Bam Owl inhabits the ravines in small numbers : it is 
a little darker than the British owl. It may be remarked 
that all the birds of Madeira are darker than their European 
brethren. 

The Blackbird, which in some parts is very plentiful, does 
not differ from the English bird. 

The Bedbreast, which more than any other bird reminds 
one of home, is very common: it is frequently caged, and 
seems to flourish in capitivity. 

The Black-cap Warbler, which is here the most domestic 
songster, has been sometimes called the Madeira Nightingale. 
There is a fulness in its warble which in a degree justifies 
such praise. Its plumage is sometimes rather darker than 
that of the English black-cap. A Madeiran variety of this 
bird has been described by Sir W. Jardine* as a new species, 
under the name of Curruoa Heineken. , Dr. Heineken, how- 
ever, in a paper in the Zoological Jotsmal, No. 17, Art. xvii., 
controverted the supposition of its being a distinct species, 
and there is reason to believe that he is right. The popular 
belief amongst the natives is, that where the nest of a " Tinto 

* Edin. Joum. of Nat. and Geog. Science, Jan., ISSO, p. 2iZ, voL i. 



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CHAP. ▼!.] BIRDS THAT BREED IN MADEIRA DESCRIBED. 117 

Negro"* contains five eggs, the fifth always turns out a " Tinto 
Negro de Capello." The variety is much prized, for where 
you could buy a common •* Tinto Negro " for sixpence or a 
shilling, you would be asked eight or ten shillings for a 
•♦ Tinto Negro de Capello." The dimensions of the two birds 
are precisely the same in all particulars. The chief difference 
consists in the black cap being extended in the variety to the 
shoulders, and I have sometimes seen the black colour ex- 
tended over all the under parts. The under parts are gene- 
rally much the same as those of the common female black-cap, 
and the upper parts as those of the common male. 

The Wren is one of the prettiest feathered inhabitants of 
Madeira. It is a trvie ReguluSj but appears to differ from any 
of the three European species best known, namely, Cristatus, 
IgnicapiUm, or Modestus. It has the beak black, the fore- 
head white, which colour extends backwards, forming a small 
band ; the base of the crest is black, the crest itself bright 
orange, in that respect differing from the IgnicapiUus^ which 
is a fiery red ; from the beak to the eye there is a small 
black band, which does not go beyond the eye, and in that 
respect also it differs from IgntcapiUm; the upper part of the 
neck and all the back are olive green, with a bright mark of 
orange yellow on each side of the neck; the great wing 
coverts are nearly black, and tipped with huffy- white, forming 
a band ; the primaries brownish black, with a narrow external 
edging of green ; the secondaries the same, but with a broad 
velvet black mark at the base; the tail feathers brownish 
black, tinged with greenish yellow on the outer web ; the 
chin and throat white, slightly tinged with green; the rest of 
the under parts of the body white, tinged with yellowish- 

* From " Tonti<jo," occiput, and '* negro," black. 



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118 BIRDS THAT BBBED IN MADEIBA DESCBIBED. [chap. vi. 

green ; the under wing coverts white ; the legs pale brown ; 
the entire length is four inches ; from the carpas to the end 
of the wing two inches and a quarter ; the length of the 
tarsus is three-quarters of an inch ; the middle toe and claw 
half an inch; the fourth, fifth, and sixth quill feathers are 
of equal length, and the longest in the wing. Believing so 
small a bird to have but a limited range, and not finding it 
even amongst the birds of the Canary Islands described by 
Webb and Berthelot, or amongst the birds of Africa, I ven- 
ture to give it the name of ** Hegulus Madeirensis.*' It lives 
amongst the laurel forests, in the less frequented parts of the 
island. 

The Spectacle Warbler is very locally distributed. It is 
found in brakes and bushes in some of the unfrequented 
parts. 

The Gray Wagtail is very common, frequenting the cisterns 
attached to houses, as well as the streams, where, from its 
familiar habits amongst the washerwomen, it has been ad- 
mitted, in Madeiran phraseology, into the ranks of the sister- 
hood, under the title of *' Lavandeira." 

The Meadow Pipet is plentifully found on the clifGs and 
fields near the sea and on the serras. It utters a low 
note, running along the ground, and never taking a long 
flight. 

The Green Canary is the original stock of the bird so well 
known to us as the yellow Canaiy. It flies about in large 
flocks with linnets and other birds, and is easily distinguished 
by its song, which is the same as that of the captive variety. 
The price of a good singing canary either in Madeira or the 
Canary Islands varies from five to nine shillings, so that, in 
fact, it may be bought much cheaper in London. This bird 
has been admirably described by Dr.' Heineken in these 



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CHAP. VI.] BIRDS THAT BREED IN MADEIRA DESCRIBED. 119 

words*: — "It is very familar, haunting and breeding in 
gardens about the city. It is a delightful songster, with, 
beyond doubt, much of the nightingale's and skylark's, but 
none of the woodlark's song, although three or four skylarks 
in confinement in Funchal are the only examples of any of 
these three birds in the island, and notwithstanding the 
general opinion, that such notes are the result of education 
in the canary. It is in full song about nine months in the 
year. I have heard one sing on the wing and passing from 
one tree to another at some distance, and am told that 
during the pairing season this is very common. Each flock 
has its own song, and, from individuals in the same garden 
differing considerably, I suspect that of each nest varies more 
or less. After the breeding season they flock along with 
linnets, goldfinches, &c., and are then seldom seen in gardens. 
An old bird caught and put into a cage will sometimes sing 
almost immediately, but seldom lives longer than the second 
year in confinement. The young from the nest are difficult to 
rear, dying generally at the first moult. They cross readily with 
the domesticated variety, and the progeny are larger, stronger, 
better breeders, and, to my taste, better songsters also, than 
the latter ; but a pure wild song from an island canary at liberty, 
in full throat, and in a part of the country so distant from the 
haunts of men that it is quite unsophisticated, is unequalled 
in its kind, by anything I have ever heard in the way of bird- 
music." 

The Goldfinch is very common, and differs in no respect 
firom our own. 

The Bing-Sparrow here takes the place, in a way, of our 
house-sparrow. It is universal, on the bleak serras, near 

* Zoological Journal, No. 17, Art. xrii. 



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120 BIRDS THAT BREED IN MADEIRA DESCRIBED, [chap. vi. 

houses, on the rocks by the sea — there is no place that it does 
not frequent: it differs thus in habits, though in nothing 
else, from the ring-sparrow of Europe. 

The BuflF-breasted Chaffinch is nearly identical with the bird 
figured, under the name of FringUla tintiUon, in Webb and 
Berthelot's work on the Canary Islands. 

The Greater Eedpole, or Linnet, is very abundantly met 
with: it differs from the English linnet only in retaining its 
carmine colouring, which is very bright, through the year. 

The Lesser Swift is mentioned in Brewster's Journal by 
Dr. Heineken under the title of " Black-chinned Swift:" this 
property is, however, by no means general amongst the spe- 
»cies. I have several in my possession with the chin fully as 
white as that of the common swift : one of the chief differ- 
ences is in size, the unicolor being much the smallest ; the 
tail is forked about an inch and a half, and the plumage is 
rather darker than that of the common swift. 

The Common Swift is not quite so plentiful as the lesser 
swift ; both species remain in the island throughout the year; 
their nests are built in the cliffs; their habits vary from 
those of swifts in England; here they seem to take the place 
of the swallow, hunting and skimming along the ground in a 
manner that would appear very degrading to their northern 
brethren. Dr. Heineken says*, ** The swallow and snipe are 
said to be periodical visitors, and the reason both for the 
migratory habits of these birds, as well for the stationary 
habits of the woodcock and swift, is very readily to be found, 
I suspect, in one common cause, namely, food. The wood- 
cock finds its food about spring-heads, the margins of little 
mountain-rills, water-courses, &c. These are neither dried 

* Zoological Joaraal, No. 17, Art. zviL 



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OBAP. VI.] BIRDS THAT BREED IN MADEIRA DESCRIBED. 121 

up here during our hottest summers^ nor frozen in the 
severest winters. The swift preys on insects universally, 
biit throughout the summer on a moth which abounds so on 
our most parched and sterile serras, that what with the 
insects and the birds the place seems all alive. The snipe 
requires a tolerable quantity of poachy, moist, decomposing 
soil, for the production of its food, and this, even in winter, 
is both scarce and very local, while at other times there is not 
a square yard in the i^hole island ; and the swallow requires 
insects which are found only over streams, and something 
approaching to rivers, which we make but a sorry figure in 
at the wettest of seasons, and are entirely without six months 
in twelve." 

The Eing-dove appears to be rather larger than the Eng- 
lish bird, in other respects it is similar ; it lives in the forests 
on the north side of the island. 

The Long-toed Wood Pigeon has been described by Dr. 
Heineken in Brewster's Journal, under the name of Co- 
lumba trocaz. It is about an inch longer than the Ma- 
deiran ring-dove; one of its chief peculiarities, and which 
seems to have escaped observation, is the great length 
of its centre toe, being more than an inch longer than 
that of the ring-dove; it has a silvery ring all round its 
neck,and is darker in its general plumage than the ring- 
dove. It inhabits the forests on the north side of the 
island, feeding upon grasses and the acorns of the laurel 
trees. 

The Bock Pigeon inhabits the sea clifEs and rocks in the 
ravines all over the island : there is a variety here which is 
darker in its plumage and in the colour of its feet than the 
common rock pigeon. Purchas relates that <'at first the 
pigeons suffered themselves to be taken, not knowing, and 

G 



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123 BIRDS THAt BBfiBD IN ICADfilfiA DfiSOBIBED. [chap. vx. 

therefore not fearing, a man;" and Sir Hans Sloane tells as 
that ** wild peacocks and pigeons were here caught in abund- 
ance with perches at first/* 

The Red-legged Partridge is shot on the serras; sports- 
men in Madeira must be prepared for hard work and a 
light bag, for the walking ifif very difficult, and the game 
scarce. 

The Quail is more plentiful than the partridge, and ap- 
proaches nearer to the halntations of man; it pairs, laying 
about sixteen eggs, and has three or four broods in the 
season. 

The Woodcock is found chiefly in the west, and on the 
Paiil da Serra sometimes plentifully ; it is a large bird, but I 
think of inferior flavour. 

• The Tern appears chiefly at the Dezerta Islands and at 
Pt. S^ Laurence. 

The Herring Gull is common everywhere : Dr. Benton 
says it is quicker by some months in obtaining its mature 
plumage than with us. 

The Cinereous Shearwater breeds plentifully on the 
Dezerta Islands; its cry, whether on the wing or on 
shore, is very peculiar ; the natives salt it, and consider it 
eatable. 

The Manks Shearwater is also very plentiful at the De- 
zertas ; it is easily to be distinguished from the Dusky Shear- 
water, which is another inhabitant of the Dezertas, by its 
superior size, and by the colour of its feet ; in the dusky 
shearwater the feet are bluish ash-colour, and in the Manks 
shearwater flesh-colour; in the dusky shearwater all the 
secretions are green, and in Manks shearwater yellow; 
the dusky shearwater is a very tame bird, and will live 
upon almost anything; it runs along the ground on its 



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<5HAP. V1.1 BEPTILES. 123 

belly, and uses its curious shaped bill in climbing up the 
rocks. 

The Angel Petrel of Heineken is said to have the tail 
slightly forked, and to differ from the other smaller petrels in 
having no white about the rump or flanks. 

The Bulwer's Petrel has been described by Sir W. Jar- 
dine*; it is very common on the Dezerta Islands ; when ap- 
proached it emits a highly offensive matter- Sir W. Jardine 
says, " It is easily distmguished from any other by having the 
two centre tail feathers elongated, as in the genus Lestri^, 
and not even or forked like the other petrels." It is probably 
identical with the angel petrel. 

Thete is another petrel called by the natives "Roque de 
Castro," and pronounced " Roque de Crasto," which is like- 
wise an inhabitant of the Dezerta Islands ; it differs from 
Leach*s pietrel, to which it is closely allied, in being larger ; 
it has a shorter wing and shorter tarsus, though its entire 
length is greater ; it has also a square tail instead of a forked 
one. It measures seven inches and a half entire length ; 
from the carpus to the end of the wifig, five inches and three- 
quarters ; tarsus, three-quarters of an inch. I have called it 
Thalassidroma castro, as I am not aware that it has ever 
been described before. 

BEPTILES. 

There are no venomous reptiles in the island. A brown 
lizard (Lacerta duges, Edw.) is to be seen on every wall. 
These are very destructive to vineyards. Frogs have been in- 
troduced of late years. 

* Sir W. Jardine on the Birds of Madeira, Edin. Joum. of Nat. and 
Geog. Science, Jan., 1830, p. 2i5, and Ulustrationi of Ornithology, by Jard. 
a&d Selb. 

Q 2 



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124 FISHES. — TUBILBS. chap. ti. 

FISHES. 

'Several fishes known in the Mediterranean and on the 
south coast of England fireqaent these shores, and they have 
many more peculiar to themselves. As fiEur as the table is 
concerned, the John Dory {Zeua), the Gray Mullet {Mu^ 
eephalus), and the Red Mullet (a genus of the Percida), 
are by fieur the best The rest, though very numerous, are 
mostly insipid. The Tunny (Thynntui) forms one of the 
principal articles of food of the poor. It is caught in 
amazing quantities on the coast, and attains a great size, 
being sometimes nine or ten feet in length* The flesh is 
coloured : it is sold at one penny or a halfpenny per pound, 
and sometimes even much cheaper. 

To catch the Tunny a large hook is run through the tail or 
back of a live mackerel, which is allowed to swim with a long 
line. The hook is sometimes taken by sharks, of which there 
are several species, including the hammer-headed {Zygana 
Malleus, Yal.). The Swordfish also {XiphioB gladitis, linn.) 
is occasionally caught in the bay. On a quiet day you may 
see the whole surface of the water glisten with little crea- 
tures floating on their sides as if they were dead ; they never 
attempt to escape, and on closer inspection prove to be the 
Trumpet-fish, deserving their name from a prolongation of 
the mouth into a tube like a pipe about an inch long. At the 
fjEtU of the tide, which rises here nine feet, lobsters, crabs, and 
shrimps are caught in the crevices of the rocks. 

On the Dezerta Islands seals are to be found throughout 
the year. 

TUBTLES. 

The Hawk-billed Turtle (Caretta) is plentiful, and is used 



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CHAP. VI.] INSECTS. 1^5 

for the table, though the soup is not comparable to that made 
from the green turtle of hotter climates. 



INSECTS. 

The insects of Madeira have not yet been completely in- 
Testigated. A few of the more peculiar haye been described 
by Mr. Bowdich, and a larger collection has recently been 
made by an English entomologist well qualified to do justice 
to the subject. 

The Death*s-Head Moth (Acherontia atropos) is com- 
mon; so is the Humming-bird Hawk Moth {Sphinx stel- 
latarum), which hovers over every flower in the hottest 
sun, taking a sip of each as it hurries along. There are also 
several varieties of the Diuma. There are several species of 
Ants : a very minute one which pervades the houses is highly 
destructive ; it is next to impossible to preserve any speci- 
mens of birds or insects from its ravages. You eat it in 
your puddings, vegetables, and soups, and wash your hands 
in a decoction of it. There are several kinds of lAheUula, 
SaUoriaf Blatta, CoecineU^i, BhyncopKora, &c., with some 
water insects. 

Yet in this climate, so favourable to existence of all sorts, 
the Mosquito, that plague of most hot countries, is com- 
paratively innocuous. Not so that fiuniliar insect which 
loves a temperature such as best suits ourselves, neither 
very hot nor very cold. The common flea thrives in the 
streets and boats of Funchal. Some of the varieties of the 
spider here are curious. The Cactus Spider is striped like 
a zebra, with bands of silver, yellow, and brown. There 
is also a large black spider, which the natives believe to be 
venomous. 



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126 GOBALS. — KEDVBM. — LUMINOSnT OF THE OCEAN. fCHAP. Ti. 
CORALS. 

A few species of the tribe of corals are fished up from great 
depths. Amongst the most remarkable are the Gorgoniaver^ 
rucosa, Sol., having a stem which forms the axis of an outer 
calcareous coat ; its cells are on both sides of the stem, which 
branches out in a fiEm-shape form. These corals are often 
covered with an elegant bivalve shell, the Avicula hirundo, 
Var., Aculiata, There is another coral, which has a delicate 
scarlet hue for some time after it is taken out of the water; 
but as the colour depends on the animal tissue, it disappears 
when this undergoes decomposition. 

MEDUSA. 

Star-fish, sea hedgehogs, and sponges are found on the 
coast The Caravel, or Portuguese man-of-war, which Sir 
Hans Sloane described as Urtica marina^ soluta, jmrpuria, 
oblonga, cirrhis longissimis, with the delicate pink and blue 
tints of their tiny transparent sails, sometimes cover the 
waters of the bay like floating soap bubbles. Humboldt 
mentions as having seen o£f Madeira the Medma aurita of 
Baster, the Medusa pelagica of Bosc, &c., with eight ten- 
tacula (Pelagia denticvluta, Peron), and a third species, 
which he says ** resembles the Medusa hysoceUa, and which 
Yandelli found at the mouth of the Tagus. It is known 
by its brownish yellow colour, and by its tentacula, which 
are longer than the body. They are sometimes four inches in 
diameter, and their changeable colours of violet and purple - 
form an agreeable contrast with the azure tint of the ocean." 

LUMINOSITY OF THE OCEAN. 

Sir Joseph Banks, on his passage from Madeira to Rio de 



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CHAP. ▼!.] GEOLOGY. 127 

Janeiro, observed the sea in those parts to be unusually 
luminous, flashing like lightning. On examining the water 
he discovered two kinds of animals that occasioned this ap- 
pearance. The one he called Cancer /tUgenSf a crustaceous 
insect ; the other peUucms, a species of Medusa. The former 
of these somewhat resembles a small shrimp, and light ap- 
pears to issue from every part of its body. The latter, 
which is the most luminous of all zoophytes, measures about 
six inches across ; its central part is opaque, and from it de- 
pend several long tentacula. Numerous other reasons have 
been given for the luminosity of the ocean, which has 
been deemed phosphoric by some, and electrical by others. 
Macartney, Humboldt, and many others have entered at 
length into a discussion on this subject Humboldt says 
that *'the luminous appearance of the sea is due partly to 
living animals, and partly to organic fibres and membranes 
derived from the destruction of these living torchbearers." 

GEOLOGY. 

The first description of the geology of Madeira which I 
have met with is contained in the posthumous work of 
Bowdich, a traveller whose name belongs to the list of those 
that have fallen victims to an ardent zeal for science, and who 
died, soon after quitting Madeira, under the bilming suns of 
Ashantee. In this work, published by his widow, who nobly 
accompanied him on the hazardous enterprise in which he 
perished, there is a general account of the eruptive rocks 
of which the island chiefly consists, and there is mention also 
of a stratified limestone, near S*P Vincente, to which his at- 
tention was directed by Mr. Veitch. The highly-inclined 
position and crystalline character of this calcareous rock led 
Mr. Bowdich to regard it as that which some geologists have 



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128 GEOLOGY. roHAP. Ti. 

termed transition limestone, or one of the lowest of the 
sedimentary formations of which the crust of the earth is 
known to he composed. 

A gentleman, however, helonging to a more advanced 
school of geology *, who has visited Madeira within a few 
years, has shown that this supposition was erroneous, and 
from the fossil shells, or rather casts of shells, which 
he obtained in such a condition that he was enabled 
to determine the genera, though not the species, to 
which they belong, concluded the formation to be of the 
Tertiary epoch. My father, to whom I owe the present 
sketch of the geology of the island, discovered in the cal- 
careous rock of S^ Yincente numerous specimens of a very 
remarkable species of Echinanthus, the E, altos of Gray, or 
Clypeaster altus of Lamarck. This species is figured by 
Scilla amongst the fossils of Malta. It is found in the 
Miocene beds of that island, of Italy, and of Greece. De 
Vemeuil, in his notice of a geological map of Spain, says 
that " in the Sierra Morena, near Cordova, are to be seen, in 
a horizontal position in contact with the old rocks, the 
Miocene beds with huge Clypeaster altus ''\ If we take this 
fossil, then, as characteristic of the Miocene period, we have 
a continuous line of that deposit established nearly east and 
west from Greece to Madeira; and at the latter place its 
formation has occurred in one of the intervals of a series 
of basaltic eruptions and disturbances to which the island 
owed its existence. 

The general correspondence of the shells and corals of this 
bed in Madeira with that found at a lower level in the neigh- 

* Mr. Smith of Jardine Hill, see Geol. Trans., vol. iii. part ii. No. 78. 
t British Association Report, 1850. 



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CHAP. ▼!.] GEOLOGY. ] 29 

bouring Isle of Baxio (Porto Santo) leaves no doubt that they 
have belonged to the same period. The latter bed, coming 
out in the sea board instead of the interior, as at S*? Vincente, 
and consequently better situated for access and transport, 
is alone worked at present, and supplies the lime-kilns of 
Funchal. Amongst the species of shells observed in it are 
Cardium, Chama, Conus, Cypraea, Gastrochaana, Lithodomus, 
Pecten, Spondylus, Turritella, Vermetus; and it contains 
numerous specimens of very delicately-preserved corals. Be- 
tween these fossils and the casts of similar fossils from 
Malta, in the British Museum, there is also an observable 
correspondence. 

The fossils in both islands are mingled with basaltic pebbles, 
and in many specimens include them. In my father's collec- 
tion from the Isle of Baxio is a Spondylus (Gaderopus ?) 
which carries the marks of its attachment to a basaltic rock. 
The beds, both in the Isle of Baxio and at S^ Vincente are 
penetrated by basaltic dikes, and are covered by, as well as 
based upon, basalt, the contact of which has given in many 
parts to the calcareous matter the crystalline structure of 
marble. Thus it appears that, after the basaltic rocks had 
been extensively spread beneath the level of the sea, a period 
of repose had succeeded, during which, through an area ex- 
tending from Madeira at least to Porto Santo, a bed of shells 
and corals had formed upon them, and that this bed was 
afterwards penetrated and overlaid by an irruption of similar 
materials, in the course of which it was lifted up at S^ Vin- 
cente to the height of 1700 feet above the sea level. In the 
Isle of Baxio, on the western side, the same bed is stated to be 
not more than 50 feet above the water. A gallery, 6 feet 
high, has been worked through the islet to the eastward, and 
there the limestone emerges at an elevation of 400 or 500 feet. 

o 3 



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180 OEOLOOT. fCHAP. ▼!. 

If we extend our geological view from these islands to the 
Canaries, we do not find, at least in Tenenfife, the same fossil 
hed; but we perceive, nevertheless, in the mineral masses of 
which that island is composed, evidence of its belonging to the 
same formation. In Tenerifife the lofty central crest of moun- 
tains, so well described by Von Buch as a crater of elevation, 
consists of a trachytic rock, that is to say, a rock largely 
felspathic, of a rough fracture, and marked by numerous 
crystals of glassy felspar. Mantling round the base of the tra- 
chytic mountains lie the basaltic strata, which line the coast, 
and, associated with these, beds of cinders and tufa variously 
coloured. The vineyards, both of Tenerifife and Madeira, are 
planted in the tufas, several varieties of which readily form a 
fruitful soil. Not only the general disposition of this series, 
but many of the details of it, are identical in the two islands ; 
and, in particular, the seams of tufa have the same peculiari- 
ties of mineral contents. These beds are best seen along 
a considerable section of the coast of Madeira, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Funchal. They lie in horizontal strata, covering, 
and interposed between, basaltic lavas, by which at many 
points they are dislocated and pierced. Their stratification 
is marked by the diflTerent colours of the seams— red, yellow, 
brown, and black. Their substapce seems to be no other 
than that of disintegrated, incoherent, basalt, in different 
states of oxygenation, as regards the iron with which they 
are coloured. Where the red variej^ is consolidated in con- 
tact with super-imposed streams of basaltjic lava, it some- 
times assumes, in both islands, the prismatic form of co- 
lumnar basalt. Amongst the materials of which these strata 
consist certain seams of pumice nodules, occupying the same 
place in the yellow tu& of either island, is especially charac- 
teristio. 



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CHAP. Ti.J GEOIiOG Y. 131 

Mr. Bennet* observed a pumice-bearing tufa in the in- 
terior of the curralt near the bottom, at the depth, that is, of 
several thousand feet beneath the summits of the walls of that 
great central crater. These consist of a series of tufas and 
conglomerates which rise, pierced by dikes, and surmounted 
with crests of basalt, to a height above the sea of five and 
six thousand feet; if, therefore, the bed observed by Mr. 
Bennet is identical with that which appears on the southern 
coast, it is certain that this lies low in the series of the rocks 
of Madeira. 

Mr. Smith has remarked that the seams of pumice ** often 
contain portions of heavier volcanic products, as cinders or 
scorisB, dispersed without regard to gravitation, proving that 
the various materials could not have been deposited under the 
sea, because in water they would instantly have separated ac- 
cording to their respective weights ;" and he proceeds to con- 
clude that *' the volcanic products of the island, being 
guba'erial, the curral is not a crater of devotion, iJiough it 
agrees with the characters assigned to svek craters ;'* and he 
is further induced to "infer, from the resembknce of the 
Curral das Freiras to the more ancient p<»rtions of TenerifEe 
and the other Canary Islands, said to be craters of elevation 
raised from beneath the level of the sea, that a wrong con- 
clusion has been drawn respecting them.'* The supposition, 
Mwever, on which this lai:ge inference was grounded seems to 
be without foundation. A single ^ower of materials of un- 
equal specific gravities might possibly be completely sifted by 
falling through water ; but in case of conseciUive showers no 
such efiect would follow, since the different rates of descent 
would be variously compensated by the different times of 
Section: bi^t, in point of bet, the nodules of pumice do 

* 8ee G«ol Trani., vol. i. p. S91, No. 17. 



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132 GEOLOGY. [CHAP.Ti. 

lie in continuous seams sufficiently distinct to justify the 
idea that they have heen separated and arranged by sub- 
sidence. Meanwhile it is very probable that these materials 
have not been projected into the air, but poured forth in 
torrents of a consistence muddy or granular, in v?hich dif- 
ferences of specific gravity would exercise an imperfect ope- 
ration. When we come to a mineralogical inspection of 
specimens, we see further that the temperature required to 
account for the formation of these beds must greatiy have 
exceeded that of the boiling mud thrown out by existing 
volcanoes ; for this pumice differs from that which we find con- 
joined with obsidian amongst sti2»ama/ volcanic products in one 
remarkable respect — in containing, that is, prismatic crystals 
of two kinds, the one colourless and transparent, being pro- 
bably glassy felspar , the other black and opaque, believed to 
be augite. The tufa, likewise, in which the pumice nodules 
are embedded contains itself crystals of the latter kind, pre- 
cisely the same as those which have been formed in the pumice. 
The whole mass, then, at the time of its formation has been 
subject to conditions in which very powerful disintegrating 
and combining forces have been in simultaneous operation, 
conditions foreign from that which has produced the vitreous 
pumice of obsidian lavas. 

But another species of mineral occurs in these beds, both 
at Madeira and Tenerifie, which throws light on the question 
of the order and period of volcanic formation to which they 
belong. In the tu&s which have been cut through near Mr. 
Veitch's quinta, at the Gorgulho, the autiior found, together 
vdth sheets of carbonate of lime, plates and infiltrations of 
Quartz resinite. The same opaline substance occurs similarly 
in Teneriffe ; but the occurrence of opal, that is to say, of 
a hydrate of silica containing water, as a large and essential 



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CHAP. VI.J GEOLOGY. 133 

constituent, affiliates the beds in which it is found to the 
basaltic or trap rocks. Such are not the products of recent 
volcanoes any more than of furnaces. The sUiciom sinter 
formed even by the boiling eruptions of Hecla contains no 
water. Hydrated silicates seem to belong peculiarly to trap 
formations. 

The scanty list of other minerals found in Madeira cor- 
roborates these views. The Zeolites, which in the vicinity of 
Porta da Cruz abound in the lavas, correspond with the opal 
of the tufas in the character of being hydrates. Augite and 
olivine, minerals characteristic of basalt, occur in every rock. 
Specular and micaceous iron are found near St. Jorge. The 
specimens of iron pyrites which are occasionally met with 
may perhaps be of recent formation ; but there are no other 
minerals of modem aspect, no sulphur, no obsidian or obsi- 
dianic pumice» no silicious sinter. A small deposit of car- 
bonaceous matter*, without any marks of organization, is 
found in the ravine of St. Jorge ; but there are no remains 
in Madeira of plants, animals, or soil, buried beneath tufa or 
lava ; with the exception of the tertiary bed already described, 
there is nowhere a trace of organic substance beneath the 
present " habitats " of organib life. The ramifications of car- 
bonate of lime which have spread through portions of the 
tufa, and have been supposed to represent ancient fibres and 
roots of plants, are for the most part the effect only of capil- 
lary infiltration, and where tubular structure indicates that 
they have encrusted vegetable fibres which have since disap- 
peared, they are not beyond the reach of the roots of recent 

* The following analysis of this lignite is given by Mr. Smith as made 
by Professor Johnstone : — 

Carbon 60*7 

Hydrogen 6-82 

Oxygen and Nitrogen . . . 83*47 



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184 GEOLOGY. [CHAP. Ti. 

plants. The fossil bed, as it is called, of Cani9al, fonns no 
exception to this statement. On that neck of land the wind 
blows away the basaltic sand from many femtastic fonns of 
calcareous infiltration, which present the aspect of roots 
tamed into limestone. These pseudo-roots, however, showing 
no other structure than that of an aggregation of lime and 
sand, probably owe their forms to the direction of the roots 
of plants which may have grown on the spot at no very dis- 
tant time, but at a time when a portion of calcareous tufa, 
since weathered away, supported a vegetation which no longer 
exists. In the same place is a deposit of land and fresh- 
water shells. Most, if not all of tiiem, have been identified 
with species existing either in Madeira or in Porto Santo. 

All the volcanic beds, then, of which Madeira consists, 
whether tufa, conglomerates, or lava, correspond with those 
which in the Mediterranean and other parts of the world 
appear to have been upheaved from the bed of the sea by a 
great and general explosion of subterranean forces at the 
Miocene period of the tertiary epodi. There is no crater <^ 
eruption to be found from which lavas can be presumed to 
have run down, or the tufas to have been ejected. The whole 
island, from the lowest of the lateral knolls to the hi^est 
peaks of the mountains, consists ai tufas and conglomerates 
piled upon each other, composed of trachytic and basaltic 
materials, cemented by a skmlar paste, and injected by 
basaltic dikes which rise from below and penetrate them, 
sometimes partially, and sometimes to their very summits. 
There are points, as, for instance, in the vast detached hill 
of the Penha d'Aguia, where it is easy to observe that these 
dikes spring from beds which appear as a vesicular scoriaceous 
lava at the water's edge. It is evident, therefore, that at the 
time when the elevation of the mountains took place, the 



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CHAP. Ti.J GEOLOGY. 185 

beds of which thej are formed were split at innumerable 
points, and that the basaltic lava rose in eveiy split, and 
issued at eveiy pore. It is further to be inferred, from what 
has been said, that at a time anterior to this elevation of the 
land a space equal to its area below the surface of the sea 
had been covered with those beds of conglomerate, tufa, and 
lava, which make up the body of the island. Nothing is 
more probable than the supposition that the elevation itself 
was due to the expansion and explosion of steam and gases, 
and that the Curral and ravines of Madeira, as well as the 
canadas and barrancos of Teneriffe, are due to the mechani- 
cal effects of such an expansion riving the rocks, gua^ua^ 
versaUy, from a central crater of elevation. At Teneriffe the 
phenomena are slightly modified by the repetition of erup- 
tions in subsequent times ; but in Madeira there appears to 
be no evidence of any eruptions not coeval with the island. 

As for the geological " loctis " of the subterranean forces 
of elevation and eruption, it appears to lie here, as in so 
many other cases, in or beneath a trachytic formation. In 
Tenenfife the crater of elevation is all trachytic. In Madeira 
a well-characterized trachytic rock appears in the ravine of 
Faial, near Porta da Cruz, beneath the crater of elevation, 
which, as has been stated, consists entirely of basaltic toha, 
conglomerates, and lava. 

That there is a general identity in the source of all volcanic 
action no one can doubt who observes the uniformity of vol- 
canic products, under similar conditions, in all parts of the 
world. It may be presumed, perhaps, that the correspond- 
ence and contemporaneousness of earthquakes in distant 
volcanic /oci are due to this cause. One of the statements of 
such a correspondence in Madeira is that *' the undulation 
from the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 reached this island soon 



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136 



GEOLOGY. 



[CHAP. yi. 



after it visited Portugal.** It may be questioned, however, 
whether we have here an instance of the rapidity of undula- 
tions, or rather of the simultaneous exertion of volcanic 
forces, proportionably affecting at the same moment certain 
weak points of the surface of the earth. Countries raised 
by volcanic action so late as the tertiary period appear to 
be still more subject than others to earthquakes, and Madeira 
is not an exception to this rule. 



CLII^ 



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1^ 

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!■■ I . ■■^p^^^^ 



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APPENDIX. 



LIST OF PLANTS, BIRDS, ETC, 

OF 

MADEIRA. 




English Burial Ground. 



See po^ 33. 



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APPENDIX. 



SIR HANS SLOANB'S LIST OF PLANTS. 

The following list of some of the plants of Madeira is 
curious, as being one of the earliest notices of the botany of 
the island. It was drawn up by Sir Hans Sloane during his 
visit to Madeira in 1687 *. In an inner margin of the page 
are given the LinnsBan names, which I found in some mar- 
ginal pencil notes to an old edition of Sir Hans Sloane*s 
works in the library of West Dean House, Sussex: they 
are evidently the work of no mean botanist. To these a 
few corrections are added in brackets, by the Rev. Mr. 
Lowe, from whose scientific skill and intimate acquaintance 
with the Flora and 8ylva of the island a more accurate ac- 
count of its botanical products may hereafter be looked for. 

" Oleattre species ut quidam jputant, ut alii Zizyphus alba, 
Gesn, hort, Germ.fol, 269. Olea Sylvestris folio moUi in- 
canOy C. B., Pin, p. 472. 

" Blegans angustifolia. Linn. Sp. pi. 774. 

* Voyage to Jamaica, vol. i. p. 7, edit. 1707. 



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138 8IB HANS 8L0AN£*8 U8T OF PLANTS. [APPBirDnc. 

**Lapthum pidchrum Bononiense iinuatum, J. B. Fidle 
Dock. 

** Bomez pnlcher. Linn. Sp. pi. 774. 

'* Jasminum tertium seu humUius magno flore, 0. 6., p. 398. 
Catahnicum, Park, Parad. 

" Jaiminnm grandifloram. Linn. Sp. pL 9. 

*'Arum maximum MgypHacumj quod vulgo ColocaMa, C. B., 
Pin., p. 196. 

" This is here planted by river sides in great quantities, 
for the root's sake, which is eaten, and very much es- 
teemed, the leaves being good for nothing but to wrap up 
things in. 

" Anun colooaiia. Linn. Sp. pi. 1868. 

•* Arundo Donax me Cypria Bod,, p. 602. The great Spanish 
or Cyprus Eeed and Cane. 

" Anmdo donaz. Linn. Sp. pi. 120. 

" Ruta quarta seuruta sylvestris minor, C. B., Pin,, p. 332. 
" (Rata angustifolia. Pen.) 

*' Hypericon minus, Dod„ p. 75. The least trailing St. John's 
Wort, 

" Hypericnm hnmifofun. Linn. Sp. pi. 1105. 

" Muscus marinus plumiformis ramulis etfoliis densissimis ca- 
piUaceis, Cat, pi. Jam., p. 6. 

** This, from a broad base sticking to stones, or other 
solids at the bottom of the sea, rises to be about three 
inches high, being divided into several branches, and they 
into twigs, which were subdivided into smaller branches, 
set with long, round, short leaves, no bigger than hairs, 



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APPBirDix.J SIB HANS SLOANE's LIST OF PLANTS. 139 

coming out of opposite sides of the middle rib or stalk, of 
a glue or darkish yellow colour, which did not crackle under 
the teeth. They look just like feathers, and were more 
thick branched and set with twigs than any other of the 
Abies-Marina-Belgica kind I ever saw. 

" I found this thrown up by the waves on the shore of 
the Island of Madeira, near the town of Funchal. 

** Lenticula palustrU sexta vel MgypUaca^ sive stratiotes aqua- 
tica foliis sedo majore latioribuSy C. B. Pin.t p. 362. 

** I found this plant either in the Island of Madeira or 
Barhadoes floating on the water, having several capillary 
brown fibres for its roots, and appearing nerves on the 
upper sides of the leaves, which, because it seems to differ 
very little from that of Alpinus, this not being Hirsute, 1 
take to be the same, and his differing from that of Ves- 
lingimy but in little, I think them not to be two plants. 

'* It is used for the same diseases as plantain, either 
outwardly or inwardly, in juice or the powder to a drachm. 

" Because there is no account of the seeds of this, or 
whether it has any or no, I think this a more proper name 
for it than that of Stratiotes, 

'* Fistia Stratiotes. Linn. Spec. pi. 1865. 
" (Not found in Madeira.) 

** Hemionitis Asari folio , Cat. pi. Jam., p. 14. 

*' The root of this most elegant plant was made up of 
many brown fibrils, which, towards the surface of the earth, 
were covered with a ferrugineous down, the stalks were 
many from the same root, blackish, round, and shining, 
about seven inches high, on the top of which was a round 
leaf, exactly like that of Asarum, about two inches diameter, 
having veins running from the top of the foot-stalk as from 



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140 SIR HANS SLOANE*t LIST OF PLANTS. [appbkdix. 

a common centre through the leaf, which was of the con- 
sistence of Hemionitis, or Lingua eervis. Eonnd the 
edges, on the under-side, lay the seed in a welt, being 
f&rrugineous, as other ferns, and making the leaf appear as 
if it were indented. 

" Adiantam Beniforme. Linn. Sp. pi. 1556. 

*^ Lonchitis aspera Marantha, J. B. Eaii Hist., p. 139. 
" (Nothochlsoa Manmtse 1 B. Br.) 

** AdiarUum ramosutn majus, foliis seu pinnuUs tenuihus longis 
prqfunde laciniatis obtusis. Cat pL Jam,^ p. 22. 

'* This rises to be a foot and a hall^ or two feet high, hav- 
ing a reddish pale brown stalk, cornered in the inside, and 
round on the other, at nine inches or a foot distance from 
the ground branched ; those branches undermost, or next 
the root, being the largest, about a foot long, having their 
twigs, on which stand the PinnuUB, or leaves alternatively, 
they being long, thin, pale green coloured, and divided into 
long, blunt, narrow sections, or incisures, by several very 
deep Ladnia, 

" Trichomanei Canariense. Linn. Sp. pL 1562. (1) 
" (Adiantam Capellis Yeneiifll Linn.) 

" Oramen paniceum spica simplici IcBvi. Rati Hist 

<<Panicmn Glancnm. Linn. Sp. pL 83. 
" (Setaria Glauca. Beanv.) 

" Gramen dactylon Siculum multiplici panicula spicis ah eodem 
exortu genuinis. Bait Histy'p. 1271. 

" Andropogon hirtmn. Linn. Sp. pi. 1482. 

*' Gramen tremulum maximum, C. B. Baii Hist, p 1274. 
" Brisa Maxima. Linn. Sp. pi. 108. 



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APPBVDXZ.] SIB HANS SLOANE's LIST OF PIANTS. 141 

** Oramen miliaceum anfftutifolium aitum locustia minimis. 
Cat. pL Jam., p. 35. 

'* This had a small, hard, green stalk, or culmus, fre- 
quently jointed, at each joint, having three or four inches 
long narrow grassy leaves, and rising to he four or five 
feet high, the panicle was ahout six inches long. The 
little twigs or strings going out of the upper part of the 
culmtis, and to which the locusttB were fastened were ahout 
two inches, taking their heginning from the same part of 
the stalk, standing round ahout like so many rays from 
the centre, at ahout an inch distance more or less from one 
another after the manner of oats. The hcusta were not 
scaly, but standing singly by one another, being many and 
small, having within clay-coloured glumcB or chaff, one 
shining, roundish, small seed, like that of millet. 

" Panicum junceuin. M. Scr. 
" (Faxiicum repenf. Liim.) 

** Oramen avenaceum, panicula minus sparsa, cuja singula 
grana, ires aristas longissimas habent. Cat. pi. Jam., 
p. 35. 

*' This grass had a panicle of about six inches long, not 
very sparse ; when ripe, of a reddish yellow colour. The 
spikes were placed alternately at long intervals, and had set 
on them by small foot-stalks, several very long grains, each 
of which had on their uppermost end three very long arista, 
by which it may be sufficiently distinguished. The glumes 
were of the same colour as the panicle, and not awned. 
The spikes were not many in number. 

" Aristida adscensionis. Linn. Sp. pi. 121, 
** (Poti&B, Aristida Coeroleiceni. Pesf.) 



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14ft SIR HAMS 8L0AMB*S LIST OF PLANTS. [appxhdix. 

•* Urtica, caids ligno80,folii8 tenuioribtu atrovirentibus. Cat. 
pi. Jam., p. 38. 

" This had an upright, cornered, woody stem, solid, and 
having a fongoos pith, heing covered with a smooth, 
reddish brown bark, rising two or three feet high, having 
joints and branches set opposite to one another, and on 
which stand, likewise opposite to one another, at the joints 
the leaves on three-quarters of an inch long foo^stalks. 
They are very thick set with burning small prickles, being 
an inch long, and three-quarters broad at round base where 
broadest, from whence they decrease to their ends, being 
very much cut in, on the edges thin, and of a dark green, 
colour. 

*' Urtica nrens var. Liim. Sp. pi. 1896. 
" (Poti^, Urtica elevata. Lowe.) 

*' Persicariaprocumbem longisdma, angustifolia, non mactdosay 
spica longiori, laxiori, et gracUiori. Cat. pi. Jam., p. 48. 

'* The root of this plant has several protuberances here 
and there, as also great numbers of reddish brown strings 
or filaments scattered up and down in the muddy ground. 
The stalks are spread round, trailing on the sur&ce of the 
earth for about four feet in length. They are round, 
reddish, smooth, jointed at every inch's interval, having a 
swelling at every joint, and near the top one leaf exactly 
like that of the ordinary Hydropiper, only much narrower 
and longer. The flowers stand on foot stalks, ex alisfol., 
and on the top of the branches, like those of the ordinaiy 
Arsmart, only they are not so closely put together, but 
more lax and slender ; and to them follows in a green husk 
a small, shining, black seed, angular, and having two 



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APPXiTDiz.] SIR HAltS SL0ANE*8 IJST OF PLANTS. 143 

prickly ends, very like the Peniearia pusiUa repem. Qer. 
emac, only the stalks much longer. 

" It grows in the Island of Madeira in a river s bank half 
a mile beyond the town of Funchal towards the mountain. 

*' Polygonum Polincoba. H. Ind. Occ. 

" (Polygoniim Hydropiper, Linn., is not uncommon in Ma- 
deira, but Polygonum Minns, to which this description seems 
to point, does not occur there now.) 

" Blitum vulgare minus surrectum. Munt, pL CuU,, p. 291. 
** Found in the Island of Madeira, near Funchal, and dif- 
fering in nothing from the ordinary wild, small, white 
Blite, only it is more erect. 

" Amaranthus Blitum. Linn. Sp. pi. 1405. 

9 

'* Psyllium maju^s erectum, C. B., J. B. Raii Hist,, p. 881. 
" (Bciipta Breeta. Linn.) 

** Convolvulus althecB foliis Clus,, rar. pL Hist., lib. iv. p. 49. 
" I found this plentifully near Funchal, It is good to 
cure wounds, Clus, 

" (Conyolyulus Altheeoides. Linn.) 

** Salvia major, folio glauco, serrato. Cat, pi. Jam,, p. 64. 
** This hath square, whitish, glaucom stalks, rising two or 
three feet high, having two leaves standing opposite to one- 
another, on inch foot-stalks, being two inches long, and 
one broad near the base where broadest, being cut in very 
deep on the edges, of a dirty green colour on the upper 
side, and very white underneath, having one middle, and 
several transverse ribs. 

** It grew near Funchal, where I gathered it without 
flowers or seed, so that I am not able to determine its 



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144 SIB HAHS SLOAKB*S LIST OF PLANTS. Capputdiz. 

Ismily. Periiaps it may be a Meurrubium nigrum^ or of 
some other kind. 

" (Tettcriom Betonieam. Linn.) 

'* Horminum luteum ^luHnotum, 0. B. Rati Hist,t p. 547. 
Coins Javis Oer,y p. 769. 

" Salvia Qlutmota. Linn. Sp. pi 87. 
" (Not at present existing in Madeira.) 

*' Origanum spicis latioribus. Cat, pL Jam., p. 65. 

'* I found this wild in Madeira Island. It has very broad 
spikes, in which it seems to differ chiefly from Origanum 
vulgare. 

" (Origanom Vireni. Hoffin.) 

** Hedera terrestris. Casalp,, p. 453. 

'* I found this near the town of Funchal, They use 
to boil it in their flesh broths in Germany. Cord. 

" Glecoma Hederacea. Linn. Sp. pi 807. 
" (Does not exiit in Madeira now, poiaibly Sibthorpia Pere^ 
grina. Linn.) 

'* Trifolium hituminomm seu trifolium ctsruleum ant violaceum 
bitumen redolens, Moris, Hist, pi., Part ii., p. 136. 

'* I found it in the Island of Madeira. The seed from 
It€Uyj in Germany, produces one with smell and taste ; but 
the seed of the German sown has neither taste nor smell, 
C.B. 

" FsonJea Bituminota. Linn. Sp. pi 1074. 

** Fumaria quinta seu lutea, C. B. Pin,, p. 143. 

*• GenisUUa tinctoria Ger,, p. 1316. 

" Genista Tinctoria. Linn. Sp. pi 121. 
" (Not at present eziiting in Madeira.) 



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▲PPBITDIZ.] SIB HANS SLOANE^S LIST OF PLANTS. 145 

** Scorpioides beupUuri folio, C. B. iZau, p. 931. 
"(Scoipinnu Sulcata. Linn.) 

•* Cicer sativum, C. B. Raii Hist,, p. 917. 

" Cicer arietinnm. Linn. Sp. pi. 1040. 

" Tithymaltis perennis et procerior lini folio actito. Cat. pL 
Jam,, p. 82. 

" This seemed to differ in nothing from the Tithym^lus 
annuus lini folio acuto MagnoL in Botan, Monsp. but in 
this, that the stalks were higher and woody. 
" Bnphorbia segetalis. Linn. Sp. pL 657. 

^* Plantago quinquenervia cum globulis albis pilosis, J. B. 
Tom. iii., lib. zxxi., p. 504. 

" (Plantago lanceolata. Linn.) 

*' Caryophyllus barbatus sylvestris annuus hxtifolius muUis cap^ 
sulis simul junctis donatus, Morison, Hist, pL, Part ii., 
p. 568. 

" Dianthus prolifer. Linn. Sp. pi. 587. 

*' Lychnis hirsuta quarta, seu sylvestris lanuginosa minor, C. B 
Pin,, p. 306. 

" Silene gallica. Linn. Sp. pi 595. (1) 

*• Cistus folio oblongo, integro, glabro, subtus aUndo, vasculis 
trigonis. Cat. pi. Jam. p. 86. 

" This shrub was five or six feet high, having a solid stem, 
covered with a light brown reddish smooth bark, and 
towards its top being divided into many branches going 
out opposite the one to the other, having likewise leaves set 
on them one against another, some being larger than 
others. The largest are about an inch long, half as broad 

H 



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146 8IB HANS 8L0ANS*8 LIST OF PLANTS. [appudiz. 

in the middle where broadest, smooth, pale, of a pale 
green colour above and white underneath, with one middle 
rib, and some transverse nerves, going from it to the sides 
of the leaf, appearing on its upper side. It has no foot 
stalk, but out of one of the ala of the leaves, towards the 
top, rise many brown stalks supporting flowers, which are 
whitish, with many stamina, surrounded by a pentaphyUoua 
cdLiXy after which come heads of the same colour, as big as 
a small pea, being roundish, though acuminated at top, 
made up of three loculaments or cells, having each on his top 
an apex. In each of these heads lies great quantities of 
small, oblong, ash-coloured seed. The head bruised smells 
very sweet. 

" Hypericiim erectum. M. Scr. 

" Geranium AUhea folio, C.B. EaUHist., p. 1056. 
"Geraninm Malacoides. Linn. Sp. pi 952. (1) 

'* Apocynum frutieosum, folio ohlongo, acumimUo, flonbus 
racemosis, Cat.pl, Jam., p. 89. 

" This had woody stalks round, and of the bigness of 
hen's quills, covered with a reddish brown bark, the wood 
being solid and white, having leaves going out at about an 
inch distance, always opposite to one another. They stand 
on half a quarter of an inch foot-stalks, are two inches 
long, and about three-quarters of an inch broad, near the 
middle, towards the base where broadest, and whence they 
decrease, ending in a point which is not very sharp. There 
is one middle rib, and several transverse ones running 
through the leaf, which is undivided, smooth, of a yellowish, 
pleasant green colour. Ex alis foliorum, towards the tops 
come three or four inch long petioli, which are branched, 
and sustain several very small flowers. 



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APPBHDix.] SIB HANS SLOANE's LIST OF PLANTS. 147 

" Trifolium acetosum corniculatum luteum minus repem et 
etiam procumbens. Moris, Hist, pi, j p. 183. 
" It takes out spots of linen. Cam, 

** Ozalis corniculata. Linn. Sp. pi. 628. 

" Fceniculum vulgare. Get. emac., p. 1032. 

** I found this in the Madeira Island very plentifully. 
" Anethum Foenicnlum. Linn. Sp. pi. 377. 
*' (Recti&s, Foeniculum Feperitam. Dc.) 

** Bupleuron primum sive folio rigido, C. B. Pin., p. 278. 
" It is a sallet herb. Cmalp. 

" Bupleurum tertium minimum. Col, Min. Cogn, Stirp,, pp. 
85, and 247. 

" Heliotropium majus, Gesn, Hort, Germ., f. 261. 

" I found a plant, something higher than the Heliotro- 
pvum majus is, in Madeira Island, but I take it, notwith- 
standing, to be the same, only it varied in stature from the 
soil, being in everything else the same. 

" Heliotropium Enropsetun. Linn. Sp. pi. 187. 

" Solanum nonum seu fructisosum bacciferumy C. B. Pin., 

p. 166. 

" Solantun Fteudo-capsicmn. Linn. Sp. pL 263. 

** Asparagus m^ritimus crassiore folio, C. B. Pin., p. 490. 
" Clusius seems to make this a distinct plant from the 
prat, a marit., saying they were differing, though in the 
same place. 

" (AspaiaguB Scoparias ? Lowe.) 

•* Hieracium steUatum., J. B. Tom. ii., lib. xxiv., p. 1014. 

*.' Hieracium fruticosum foliis tenuissim^e coronopi modo divisis. 
Cat. pi. Jam., p. 123. 
" From one single, three, or four inches long, crooked, 

H 2 



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148 SIB HANS SLOANE*S LIST OF PLANTS. [appbkdix. 

root, rises a woody, solid, crooked, round, light brown 
stalk, three feet high, having several Bmall branches to- 
wards the top, and now and then tufts of leaves, some 
bigger, others smaller, but all of them divided or lacinated 
very minutely, almost into hairs, like the leaves of Coro- 
nopus RusUii or Sophia Chirurgorum. The flowers are 
several at top, standing within a ealia made up of a great 
many small, long, and narrow leaves, which are reflected 
when the seed ripens, leaving many small black pappoiu 
seeds to be carried away with the wind. 

" It grew on the stony hills to the eastward of the town 
of Funchal, 

** (TolpU Pecdnata. Lowe.) 

''' Alypumf Bive herba terribUis procerior, cortice einereo scahro, 
folio acuminatolongiore. Cat, pi, Jam.y p. 1$24. 

" This rose much higher than the Herba terribilis nar- 
bonensumf having a hard white wood, with a large pith, a 
scabrous or unequal light brown or gray bark ; the branches 
toward their ends were very thick set with leaves, with- 
out any order. They were two inches long, and a third 
part of an inch broad where broadest, being narrow at 
the beginning, increasing to the middle, and ending in 
a point, equal at the edges, with one middle rib, and several 
transverse ones, of a yellowish green colour. Towards the 
tops of the twigs, ex alisfcl,, come the flowers, being several 
heads, round or spherical, made up of many very small blue 
flowers, with their stamina set round very close together in 
the same head, to which follows a very small gray pappous 
seed, all over downy. 

'' (Globularia Salicina. Linn.) 



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APPBKD1X.J SIB HANS SLOANE's LIST OF PLANTS. 149 

" Helichrysum secundum seu Heliehryso iylvestri flore ohlongo 
nmilis, C.B. Pin,, p. 265. Prod,, p. 123. 
** It is good in decoctions for the cholic. Clus, 
** Conyza Sazatilik Liim. Sp. pL 1206. (!) 

** CfnapJudium ad Stcschadis dtrinam accedens, J. B. Tom. iii., 
lib. xxvi., p. 160. 

" I found this both ramose and not ramose. 

" GnaphaUmn lateo Album. Linn. Sp. pi. 1196. (?) 

'* Chrysanthemum aquaticum cannahinum, folio tripartita di 
viso. Herm, cat, pL, p. 146. 

*" (BidenB leacantha. Willd.) 

'* Erica folio coridis sexta, seu major scoparia foliis deciduis, 
C.B. Pin., p. 485. 

" (Brica Scoparia ? Linn.) 

" Genista non spinosa prima, seu angulosa et scoparia, C. B. 
Pin,, p. 395. 

'* Common broom. The flowers are eat in sallets, al- 
though two ounces of the seed decocted are a vomit, Mes., 
but not more than radishes, &c.. Lob, The water of the 
flowers, or half a drachm of the seed beaten, are good 
against the stone, Lon, 

" Spartinm Scoparium. Linn. Sp. pL 996. 

** Myrttts septima, seu sylvestris foliis acutissimis, C. B. Pin., 
p. 469. 

** I found this very plentifully growing wild in the hedges 
by the waysides in the Island of Madeira. This is used 
for currying leather, as Bhus or Lentisk, CtBsalp, The ripe 



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160 8IB HANS 8L0ANE*8 LIST OF PLAllTS. [appbitdix. 

berries are used for sauce, Math,, before pepper was found, 
as Pliny tells us ; the fruit of tlhis was made use of in its 
place. 

" Myrtof commimit Insitenica. Linn. Sp. pL 664. 

" Lycium folio ohhngo, serrate acumincUo spinis minoribus or- 
matum. Cat. pi. Jam., p. 171. 

" This seemed to differ very little from the common 
Lycium, only the leaves were longer, serrated, and pointed, 
and the prickles were not so large. 

" Palma prunifera foliia yucca, fructa in racemis congestia 
ceran/ormi, du/ro, cinereo, pisi magnitudine, oujus lachryma 
sanguis draconis est dicta. Comm. cat. Amst., p. 260. 

*' I found this in the Island of Madeira, in the hedges, 
very plentifully, though not very large. It is found in the 
islands Socotora, Borneo, Canaries, Madagascar, and (Aluise 
de Cadamosto ap. Ram., pr. vol. p. 105) at Porto Santo, 
where they cut the trees at the foot, and next year find the 
gum, which they desiccate in water by boiling and purging. 
The fruit is yellow, and ripe in March, and good to eat. 

" The tree is pierced near the bottom, and so yields the 
gum. The fruit cools and alters, and is proper in fevers. 
Cinaber du Dioscorid. Thevet. 

" It is adulterated with Ruhrica and Colophony, Casalp. 

" Lobels leaf is the Spatha, in all likelihood. Lugd. 

<* The gum is used by goldsmiths for a foile and enamel, 
and by glaziers for colouring glass. Park. 

'* It is used to strengthen the gums and teeth, in 
bloody excretions, fluxes, &c. Joust. 

** Draceena Diaco. Linn. Syst Nat 246. 



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APPBVDIX.] 



LIST OP CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



151 



'* Opuntia Maxima, foliis majoribm crassioribtis et atrovirenti- 
his, spinis minoribus et paucioribtu obsitis. Cat pi. Jam., 
p. 196. 

" This Indian fig was in every part exactly the same with 
the common, only each leaf was broader, thicker, of a darker 
green colour, and not so prickly, having a very few white 
short prickles, and sometimes only one, corxdag out at a 
hole very like that kind on which comes the cochineal, only 
it is not quite so free of prickles as that. 
" It grows in Madeira and in the Canaries, 
" (Opuntia Tuna. Linn.)" 



LIST OP CULTIVATED PLANTS GROWING IN THE GARDENS OF 
THE PALMEIBA AND THE DEANEBT. 

As a fair specimen of perennial plants cultivated in a 
Madeira garden, may be taken the following list, arranged 
according to the ** Natural System of Botany, by John Lind- 
ley, 1836," and furnished me by the kindness of 0. Bewicke, 
Esq., being the produce of the garden of the Quinta da 
Palmeira. To these the names of a few other plants that 
are found in the garden of the Deanery have been added 
by C. Conybeare, Esq. 



ORDERS. 


English 

Namss. 


PORTUOUSSB 

Namxs. 


Genera. Species. 

Papavbraobjb. 
Ghiyseii Oalifomica 

Magnoliaobjb. 
Magnolia grandifloia 
— purpurea 




Magnolia 





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16^2 



LIST OP CULTIVATED PLAITTS. 



[APPUTDIX. 



ORDERS. 


EiroLisB 


PORTUaUBSB 

Namxs. 


Oenen. 


Spedet. 






Magnolia 
Liriodendroi 


fiiscata 
pnmila 
I tulipijfeia 

AVOVAOBA 


Dwarf magnolia 
Tulip tree 


Tulipeiro 


Anona 


tr^tala 

ABALIAOlJi. 


Custard i^ple 


Annona 


Hedeia 


helix 

VXTAOB*. 


Ivy 


Hera 


Yitif 


vinifeia 
Seveial varietiei. 


Vine 


Vinha 


PlTTOSPORACMJl. 








nndnlatom 




Mocaim 


Ohaokacbji. 






Fnclina 


coccinea 
corymbifloia 
Berratifolia 
fulgoit 
globoia 
arborescent 
And varieties. 




Mimo 
































(Bnothera. 


Mtbxac&s. 






EucalyptuB 
Melaleuca 


robusta 
pulyernlenta 
ericifolia 
s speciosa 




Urze de pluma 
Martinet 


Metrodderoi 


Bottle briish 




lanceolata 






Psidium 


pomiferum 
catleianum 
communis (natiye) 
jambos 


Quava 


Ghiaveiro 


Myrtoi 
Engenia 


MyrUe 
Rose apple 


Murta 

Jambeiro dasln- 
dias 

Bomeira 


Eugenia 
Punica 


MicheU 
granatum 


Petanga 


Philadblphaoba 






Philadelphos grandifloros 


Syringa 






CkKfUBBITAOEJi. 






Sechium 


edule 


Tchu-tchu 


Pepinella 



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APPBirnix.] 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



163 



ORDERS. 


English 
Nambs. 


PORTUOUESB 

Names. 


Genera. 


Species. 
Caotaokjb. 






Echinocact 


us eyriesii 

— ottonis 

speciosissimus 
triangularis 
flagelliformis 
serpentinus 

Q tmncatum 
tuna 

mikrodasis 
aculeata 






OereuB 














Epiphyllui 
Opuntia 

Pereskia 


Tabaiba 








FlOOIDILB. 






Mesembryanihe- deltoideum 

mum 
aureum 




Amores de ra- 




pazes 




speciosum 
tenuifolium 

BEOONIAOEJa. 












Begonia 


nitida 

semperfloreni 

dregii 












Cbjjcifkrm. 






Cheiranthus 


Wall-flower 


GFoiveiro 




Oapparidaohii. 






Oleome 


spinosa 

YlOLAOBJB. 






Viola 


Madeirensis 

PASSIFLO&AOlLa. 


Violet 


Violetta 


Passiflora 


coerulea 

edulis 

racemosa 


Passion-flower 


Martyrio 
Maracuj^ 




Scarlet passion- 
flower 








BlXAOBJB. 






Bixa 


orellana 


Amotta 




Mammea 


Africana 


Mammee tree 


Mamoeira 



H 8 



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154 



LIST OF OXTLTIVATED PLANTS. 



[APPflVDIZ. 



ORDERS. 


Eholish 

Names. 


POBTITOUBU 

Namss. 


Generm. 


Spedet. 
TiBVSTBOiuAoma. 






Gamellia 


Japonica 
Yarietiei. 




BondeJaplLo 








AOIEIOUI. 






Acer 


pieado platanui 
rubrom 

SAPUDAO&a. 


Sycamore 
Maple 




Sapindnt 


•aponaria 

.SSOULAOUU 


Soap-beny 


Saboeira 


(Bfcnlui 


payia 


HorBe^hettnat 




Linam 


trigynmn 

OlSTAOXA 


Flaz 




CUtui 


ladaniferof 
Stbbouliao&b. 


Gnmsiftiis 




Bombaz 


ceiba 
erianthoi 


Silk cotton tree 
Woolly flowered 
ditto 


Algodlb do mate 






Malya 
HibiscoB 


Malyaosjl 

ronnneniia 
mutabilii 
lyriacus 
* heterophylluB 
stnatum 
rosea 


Changeable rote 
Hollyhock 


Cardeal singela 
Metamorphose 








AbatUon 
Althsea 


Malvaeiaco 




Ltthilaoiji. 






Cuphea miniata 

platycentm 

strigologa 

Lagentnemia indica 








MELIAOlJi. 






Melia 


azedaiach 


Bead trie. 


Sycomoro bas- 
tardo 



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▲PPBirDXX.J 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



165 



ORDERS. 



English 

Nahks. 



portugubsb 

Namxb. 



Genera. Species. 

AUBANTIAOILB. 

Citrus aurantiam 

nobilis 

Tulgarig 

Ehahnaobjb. 
Rhamnui latifolins 



Orange 
Mandarin orange 
Seville orange 



Ceanothns 



Buzns 



Euphorbia 



Poinsettia 

Bicinns 
Jatropha 



africanns 

EUPHOBBIAOSA. 

semperflorens 

anguBtifolia 

Bi&nticosa 

splendena 

bojeri 

neriifolia 

canariensis 

pulcherrima 

conunnnis 

manihot 

curcaa 



Box 



Oelastraoks. 
Oelastnig cassinoides (native) 

SiLENAOKB. 

Dianthus chinensis 



barbatns 

caryophylluB 

lat^oUoB 

Tamabicaoes. 
Tamariz indica 

BUTAOEJa. 

Bioama ericoides 

Melianthns major 

Qbeaniaoejb. 
Felargoniiim glutinosum 

graveolens 

And many varieties. 



Castor oil plant 
Cassava 

Angular - leaved 
physic nut 



Staff tree 



Pink 

Sweet William 
Carnation 



Tamarisk 



Honey flower 



Larangeiro 
Tangerine 



Bhamno 



Buxo 



Manh^ de Pas- 
coa 

Mandioca 
PinhoSs do Bra- 
zU 



Cravinarda Arra- 
bida 

barbeUa 



Craveiro 



Urze de Cheiro 



Malva 



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156 



IJ8T OF CULTITATED PLANTS. 



[▲PPBITDXX. 



ORDERS. 


Emolish 

Namss. 


FomTnouBsc 

Namxb. 


Qmtn, 


* Spades. 
OXAUDAOAS. 






Oxalil 


Tersicolor 
BosAoma. 






Bom 


mnltiflora 
bankiiss 


Bom 


Bosadetocar 




rinica 
indica 
moscota 
And Tarietiei. 
8 varieties 




Bosa de China 






BosadeMusgo 
Morango 


Pragaria 


Strawbeny 


SubortUr, "PouMM, 






Eriobotrya. 

Cydonia 
Pyrns 


japonica 

ralgaris 

commonis 

japonica 


Loquat 

Quince 
Pear 


Nespeias de Jap 

Marmuleiro 
Pereiro 


Sviborder, Amtqdalbjb. 






Amygdalus 
Pnmut 


communis 
persica 

Lboumihosa 


Almond 

Peach 

Laurel (socalled) 


Pecegueiro 
Loirocerejo 


(Tribe, PapilionacesB.) 






Edwardsia 
Bobinia 
Coronilla 
Kennedya 

Wisteria 
Phaseolus 


pseud-acacia 

glauca 

monophylla 

rubicunda 

sinensis 

caracalla 

poiantbus 

velutina 

cristagalli 


Common acacia 


Acacia bastarda 
Caracoleiro 


Erythrina 


Coral tree 






Cape coral tree 




(Tribe, Csesalpiniffi.) 




Gleditschia 

Csesalpinia 
Poinciana 


triacanthos 

Sappan 
pulcherrima 


Honey locust 
tree 

Flower fence 





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APPENDIX.] 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



157 



ORDERS. 


English 

Names. 


PORTUGDBSS 

Namkb. 


Genera. 
Oassia 
Gercis 
Ceratonia 


Species, 
laevigata 
eiliquastrnm 
siliqua 

(Tribe, Mimoseae.) 


Judas tree 
Carob tree 


Olaya 
Alfaroba 


Acacia 


dealbata 

verticillata 

fiEiroesiana 

leucocephala 

lophantha 

plumosa 




Aroma 










SAXIFRAGAOEiB. 






HydraDgea 


hortensis 
sarmentosa 




Novellos 




^^ \f V VAAX/D 




ORASSULAOBiB. 






Bochea 


&]cata 

lactea 

arbore^cens 
im calycinum 

coccinea 

orbiculata 
mi glutinosum (native) 




Flor de Misanga 


Crassula 


House leek 


Bryopbylk 
Cotyledon 

Semperyivi 


Ensay&o 




ANAOABDIACEiB. 






Mi 


indica 
terebinthns 

CuPULUfHKA. 


Sumach 
Mango 

Cyprus turpen- 
tine tree 


Sumagre 
Mangueira 


Castanea 
Quercns 


vesca (native) 

ilex 

robur 

pedunculata 

coccinea 

suber 

sylvatica 


Chestnut 
Oak 

Cork tree 
Beech 


Castanheiro 
Carvalho 








Sovereiro 


Fagus 




Ubtioaojb. 






Morns 
Ficns 


nigra 

carica 

stipulata 

comosa 

elastica 


Mulberry 
Fig 

Caoutchouc 


Amoreira 
Figueira 



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168 



LIST OP CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



[appbsdix. 



ORDERS. 


Emolish 

Najom. 


PomnroDua 

Namss. 


OeMn. 


SpedM. 
Ulmaosa 






Oeltif 


aurtralis 


Nettle tree 




Peperomca 


PipmoiA 






Saliz 
Populus 


SALiOAoma. 
Babylonica 
dilatata 


Weeping willow 
Poplar 


Choradeiia 
Alemo 


Platanui 


Platavaobjb. 
orientalif 
oocidentalif 

Laubaoia 

foBteni (nati?e) 
indica (native) 
gratiBiima 
barbusano (natiye) 
canarienuB (native) 
camphoia 


Plane 


Platano 


Oreodaphne 
Penea 

Lanrof 




Tn 


••••• 

Avocado pear 


Yinhatico 
Barbuiano 




Camphor tree 


Louro 
Gamphoreiro 


Phttolaogaoia 
Phytolacca decandia 


Virginian poke 




Minbilii 


NToiAonrAO&B. 
jalapa 


Marvel of Peru 


Boninas 


Brica 

ArbutuB 

Azalea 


Bbicaoks. 

nnedb 
indica 
pontica 


Heath 
Strawberry tree 


UnedaSerra 

Medronheiro 

Asalia 






Chryiophyl] 


Sapotaoxa 
tun monopyrennm 


Star iq)ple 




Lobelia 


LoBXUAO&a. 
pubescena 










COHTOLYVLAOUl. 

Ipomea taberoia 


Tellow cable 
plant 





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▲PPBVDIZ.] 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



169 



ORDERS. 


Emglish 
Namss. 


PomruouBSB 

NAMBB. 


Genera. 


Species. 






CAMPAinTLAO&B. 






Campannla pyiamidalia 
Trachelium ccenileTim 
Adenophoia suayeolens 


Bell flower 
Throatwort 






CiNOHONAOBJi. 






Gardenia 


radicani 

florida 

arabica 


Cape Jasmine 
Coffee 




Coffea 


Caffeiro 




CAPSIFOLIAOBJi. 






Weigelia 
Capnfolium 

Yibuinmn 


rosea 
etruscum 
confuBum 
tinus 

COMPOSITJB. 


Honeysuckle 
Laurestinns 


Madre de sylva 
Louroregio 


Dahlia 
GaUlardia 
Humea 
Cineraria 


luperflna 

picta 

elegans 

amelloidei 

maritima 

pinnatus (native) 






Sonchus 


Sowthistie 


Mai me quer de 
rocha 


Eleinia 


neriifolia 




( 


GFliOBULARIAOEJI.^ 






Olobnlaria 


longifolia(natiYe) 

PLUMBACinrAOKa. 




Malforado 


\Ji *^^ *^ v^Mwmm amm 






Plumbago 


capensis 
Bhbbtaobjb. 


Leadwort 




Heliotropinm peruyianum 


Heliotrope 


Balsama 




BOBAGINAOIJI. 






Bchium 


simplex 
nerrosum (native) 

Labiata. 


Pride of Madeiib 


Penacho azul da 
rocba 




Salvia 


flip 




SaWa 






Camarfto 









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160 



LIST OF CULTIVATBD PLANTS. 



[APPSITDZX. 



ORDERS. 



. Oenenu Spedet. 

LeonotU leonunu 
Mentha 

Ybsbbkaoab. 

Dnianta ellisia 

microphylla 

Jiftnfaffl^ aculeata 

Lippia citriodora 



Glerodendron 
Yerbena 



fragrans 
yiscosum 
melindnis 



Oatalpa 
Orescentia 



BlONOiriAOBJB. 

radicani 

stans 

yenuita 

capensis 

syringifolia 

cucurbitma 



AOANTHAO&S. 

Acanthus mollis 

Justicia adhatoda 

Eranthemiim polchellum 

QBSNBBAOlJi. 

Gesneia zebrina 
Gloxinia speciosa 
Achimenes pulchella 
longiflora 

SoBOPHULABIAOEJi. 

Calceolaria integrifolia 



Maurandya 



Lophospernum 

Eussellia 

Mimulns 

Diplacus 

Penstemon 

Paolownia 



barclayana 

rosea snperba 

semperflorens 

scandens 

hendersoni 

joncea 

puniceus 

imperialis 



English 

Namcs. 



Mint 



Yerbena 



Yerbena 



Bound - fruited 
Calabash 



poktuoucsb 

Namsb. 



Hortel&a 



Pezegueiro In- 
gles 

Ghiamic^ de 
jardim 



Cuja 



GHgante 



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APPBirnix.] 


LIST OP CULTTVATBD PLANTS. 


16] 


ORDERS. 


English 

Nambb. 


PORTUOUSSB 

Nambs. 


Genera. 
Alonsoa 
Veronica 
Bmnsfelsia 

Capsicum 
Solandra 
Datura 
Bmgmansia 

Petunia 


Species, 
nrticaefolia 
speciosa 
americana 

SOLAHAOBJB. 

fratescens 
' grandiflora 
&8tuosa 
snaveolens 
sanguinea 

phenicia 
pseudo capsicum 

Gbstbaoilb. 

vespertinum 

Apootnaoejb. 
oleander 

(white variety) 

rosea 
major 
rubra 

k.80LBPIAI)AaiIJB. 

camosa 
curassavica 

Olbaobjb. 
Europea 
fragrans 

vulgaris 
excelsior 

jASMHTAOEiB. 

odoratissimum (na- 
tive) 
grandiflorum 

Ctendaokb. 
revoluta 
ComwB&M, 
pinea 




Pimfinteint 




Trombetas 






Solanmn 

OAftrqiT^ 


Bellaa noitea 


Nerimn 


Oleander 
Periwinkle 


Sevandilha 


Vinca 


Congossa 


Plmnieria 

i 
Stapelia 
Hoya 
Asclepias 

Olea 

Lignstrum 
Fraxinus 

Jasminum 




OUve 
Sweet olive 

Privet 
Jasmine 

Stone pine 


OUveira 
Magnolia de 

cheiro 
Alfeneiro 
Freixo 

Jasmin 


Cycas 
Pinns 


Pinheiro manso 



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162 



LIST OF OULTIYATED PLANTS. 



[APPBiroix. 



ORDERS. 



PinoB 

Laiix 
Tazodiom 

Cnpresfui 



Junipenu 

Thuja 

Aiancaria 



Species, 
pinaster 
canariensif 
cedroi 
distichom 

•empemreni stricta 

horisontalif 

Insitanica 
oxjcedntg (naUve) 
occidentalis 
biazilienuf 



Taxaoas. 
Salifburia adiantifolia 

ZdroiBiBAOKa. 
Hedychium gardnerianuin 

angastifoliiim 

Alpinia nutans 

Zingiber officinale 

Curcoma lencorfaisa 



Calathea 
Canna 



Strelitda 
Mnsa 



Fnrcrsa. 
Agave 



Maeahtaobje. 
zebrina 
indica 
spedosa 
lutea 

MUSAOKS. 

ovata 

angusta 

paradisaica 

sapientnm 

coccinea 

cayendishii 

Amabtllisaoba. 
gigantea 
americana 



Narcissus 

Pancratium 
Amaryllis 



jonquilla 
orientalis 
odoms 



▼ariegata 



formosissima 
belladonna (natiye) 



Emolish 

Namxs. 



Canary pine 



Deciduous cy- 
press 
Oypreu 



Garland flower 



Ginger 
Bast India arrow 
root 



Indian shot 



Banana 



Aloe 



PORTUaUBSS 

Names. 



Oedro 
Cypreste 
Oedro da Senm 



Bocade Y«uis 

Ginga 

Batatinha 



Ganade India 



Bananeira 



Fiteira 



Seraphim 
Belladonna 



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APPBVDIX.] 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



168 



ORDERS. 



Genera. 
Amaryllis 

Nerine 

Crinuin 

GladioluB 
Tritonia 



Tigridia 
Feiraria 
IrU 



Bromelia 



Si>ecies. 
reginae 
longifolia 
samienBis 
undulata 
amabile 

ISIDAOILfi. 

segetnm 
pBittacinuB 
Herbert's hybrids, 

yarious 
crocata 
longiflora 
fenestrata 
payonia 
undulata 
florentina 
Xiphium 
biflora 

Bbokeliaoejb. 



Palmaobjb. 
Phoenix dactylifera 

GocoB nucifera 



liUiXAOEiB. 



Tiili^m 



Sdlla 



Hemerocallig 
Agapanthus 

Alli um 
Buscus 
Dracaena 



Fhormimn 
Yucca 



lancifolium 
bulbiferum 
tigrinum 
candidum 
hyacinthoides (na- 
tive) 
peruviana 
fulva 
umbellatus 

moly 

androgynus (native) 

draco (native) 

ferrea 

australiB 

tenax 

filamentosa 

aloifolia 



English 

Nahxs. 



Mexican lily 
Guernsey Ifly 



Tiger flower 
Lirio 



Pine apple 



Datepabn 
Cocoa nut 



Dragon tree 
New Zealand flax 



poktugubsb 

Namxs. 



Bachael 



Flor d'um dia 
Flor de abelha 



Ananaz 
Palmeira 

Lirio 

Sucena 
Alvarnia 

do Peru 

Ooroa de Hen- 
rique 

Allegra campo 
Dragoeiro 



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164 



LIST OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. 



[APPBITDIX. 



ORDERS. 


ElVOIJSH 

Nambs. 


PORTUODBSB 

Namm. 


Qmtn. 
Aloe 

Tndetcanti 


SpMdai. 
Terrooooi 
•rboTMoenf 
pUcatilif 
■ftponaria 
humilif 

OouMMLajLomm, 
la Tiiginica 

diKolor 

sebrina 

aspera 

Vamdamjlqmm, 

odoiatiisimna 

Aiuoma. 
ethiopica 
segninum 

dracunculnt (natire) 
colocaaia 

G&AimrAOHA. 
donax 

arundinacea 










Smilax 


Lagac&o 
Jarroi 


Pandannf 
Galla 


Screw pine 


Oaladiimi 
Aram 


Dumb cane 


Dracnnculo 


Anmdo 


Tarn (lo called) 

Cane 

Bamboo 
Sugar-cane 


Inhame 
Gana - 


Bambnsa 
Saccharum 


Canada Brazil 
Cana d'assucar. 



N.B. The Portogaese names are generally thoee used in the island of 
Madeiray with a few added from the " Compendio de Botanica " of Brotero^ 



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▲PPBVDIX.J 



BIBDS THAT BBEED IN MADEIRA. 



165 



11. 



LIST OF BIBDS THAT BBBBD IN MADBIBA. 



Latin Name. 



1. Falcotumunciilus. — Linn. 

2. buteo. — Linn. 

8. Striz flammea. — Linn. 

4. Tiirdus memla. — Linn. 

5. Sylvia rubecula. — Lath. 

6. atricapilla. — Lath, 

(Corraca Heineken. — Jard.) 

7. Corraca conspicillata. — 

Gould. 

8. Begolns madeirenns. — 

Mihi. 

9. Motacilla boarula. — Linn. 

10. Anthuspratensis. — Bechst. 

11. Fringilla butyracea. — 

Linn. 

12. ' carduelis. — Linn. 

13. petronia. — Linn. 

14. tintillon.— Webb 

and Berthelot 

16. cannabina. ■ 

Linn. 

16. Cypselus nnicolor. — Jard. 

17. muiariua. — 

Temm. 

18. Columba trocaz. — Hein. 



19. 



palumbos. — 



Linn. 

20. livia.— Briss. 

21. Perdiz rubra. — Briss. 
22. cotumiz. — Lath. 

23. Scolopaz rusticola. — 

Linn. 

24. Sterna hirundo. — Linn 

25. Lams argentatus. — 

Brunn. 

26. Procellaria puffinus. — 

Linn. 

27. anglorum. — 



28. 



Temm. 
Qmel. 



obscura. — 



English Name. 



Kestrel 

Buzzard 

Bam owl 

Blackbird 

B^dbreast 

Black-cap vrarbler 

Variety of the former 

Spectacle warbler 



Gray wagtail 
Meadow pipet 
Green or wild canary 

Goldfinch 

Ring sparrow 

Buff-breasted Chaf- 
finch 

Greater redpole or 
linnet 

Lesser swift 

Common swift 

Long-toed wood pi- 
geon 
Ringdove 

Rock pigeon 
Red-legged partridge 
Quail 
Woodcock 

Tern 
Herring gull 

Cinereous shearwater 

Manks shearwater 

Dusky petrel 



Portuguese Name. 



Francelho 
Manta 
Coruja 
Merlo-preto 
Papinho 
Tinto-Negro 
Tinto-Negro de Ca- 
pello 



Abibe 

Lavandeira amarella 
Corre de Caminho 
Canario 

PintaSilva 

PardSo 

Tentilhio 

Tinto rozo 

Andorinha da Serra 
do Mar 

Trocaz 

Pombo 

Pombinho 
Perdiz 
Cordonez 
Gfallinhola 

Garajio 

Qaio, Ghiivata (after 

third aut. moult) 
Cagarra 

Boeiro 

Pintainho 



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166 



UBT or STBAOOLBBS IN MADEIIU. [APPUrsix. 



Latin Name. 


Eii«lkhName. 


Portugueae Name. 


29 


Thalanidroma anginho. — 


Angel petrel ^ 






Hein. 
ThaUffidromsBalweriL — 


Bnlwer'i petrel f 


Anginbo 




Jard. 


J 




80. 


TbaUssidroom caitro.— 
Mihi 






Boque de Castro 








LIST OF STBAOOLEB8 IN MADEIBA. 


Latin Name. 


Englith Name. 


Authority*. 


81. 


Catbartet peicnoptenis. — 

Temm. 
Falco Dinis. — Liim. 


Bgyptian vulture 


* * » 


82. 


Sparrow bawk 


» * » 


83. 




Baven 


* * » 


84. 


corona. — Linn. 


Carrion crow 


Mr. Lowe 


85. 


Oriolos gabula. — Linn. 


GK)]den oriole 


* * * 


86. 


Stnrnna Tolgaris. — Linn. 


Common starling 


* * * 


87. 


Tnrdos iliaou. — Linn. 


Bed wing 


Mr. Lowe 


88. 


musicas. — Linn. 


Common tbrusb 


Mr. Penfold 


89. 


Sylvia bortenii8.~Lath. 




Mr. Penfold 


40. 


IVoglodytet BoropaBus.— Sdb. 
Motacilia alba. — Linn. 


Common wren 


Mr. Lowe 


41. 


PiedwagtaU 


» » * 


42. 




SkyUrk 


Mr. Lowe 


48. 


Fringilla cbloris. — Linn. 


Greenfincb or grosbeak 


* m * 


44. 


domestica. — Linn. 


Common sparrow 


Mr. Penfold 


46. 


Cncolus canoras. — Linn. 


Cuckow 


♦ » » 


46. 


Musapbaga Africana.~Tenim. 


African bee>eater 


Mr. Penfold 


47. 


Upupa epops. — Linn. 


Hoopoe 


* * * 


48. 


Merops apiaster. — Linn. 


Bee-eater 


Mr. Lowe ' 


49. 


Alcedo ispida. — Linn. 


Kingfisber 


Mr. Lowe 


50. 


Hirundo urbica. — Linn. 


House martin 


* ♦ » 


61. 


nutica. — Linn. 


Chimney swallow 


* * * 


62. 




Bank martin 


Doubtful 


63. 


Caprimulgus Buropseos. — Linn. 




Mr. Hinton 


64. 
66. 
66. 


Coumba ssnas. — Linn. 


Stock dove 
Turtle dove 
Thick-knee 


Mr. Lowe 


(Bdicnemus crepitans. — ^Temm. 


* * « 
Mr. Lowe 


67. 


Calidris arenaria. — III. 


Sanderling 


Mr. Lowe 


68. 


Vanellus cristatus. — Meyer Crested kpwing | 


w * * 


69. 


Gharadrius biaticula. — lonn. 


Binged plover 


1 


Mr. Lowe 



* The stars refer to the Author's own observations. 



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APPBITDIX.] 



LIST OF STBAGGLEBS IN MADEIRA. 



167 



Latin Name. 



English Name. 



Authority. 



60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66, 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
76. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
88. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 



Charadriiifl pluvialis. — Linn. 
Strepsilus interpres. — Leach 
Ciconia nigra. — Tenun. 
Ardea cinerea. — Lath. 

nuBata. — Wagler 

purpurea. — Linn. 

minuta. — Linn. 

stellariB. — Linn. 



• nycticorax. — Linn. 



Limosa melanura. — Leislor 
Numenius arquata. — Lath. 

phseopufl. — Temm. 

Tringa pugnax. — Linn. 

subarquata. — Temm. 

variabilis. — Meyer 

cinerea. — Temm. 

Totanus hypoleucos. — Temm. 

glottis. — Bechst. 

Scolopax gallinago. — Linn. 

major. — Temm. 

Crex Baillonii. — Temm. 

pratensis. — Selb. 

€killinula chloropus. — Lath. 
Fulica atra. — Linn. 
Anser segetum. — Steph. 
Marecea Penelope. — Selb. 
Anas crecca. — Linn. 

boschas. — Linn. 

Sterna nigra. — Linn. 

Dougalli. — Mont. 

Larus tridactylus. — Lath. 
Lestris cataractes. — Temm. 
Colymbus glacialis. — Linn. 
Sula alba. — Temm. 
ThalassidromaLeachii — Temm. 
■ pelagica. — Linn. 



Golden plover 

Turnstone 

Black stork 

Common heron 

Buff-backed heron 

Purple heron 

Little heron, or bittern 

Common bittern 

Night heron 

Black-tailed godwit 

Common curlew 

Whimbrel 

Ruff 

Pigmy curlew 

Dunlin 

Knot 

Sandpiper 

Greenshank 

Common snipe 

Great or solitary snipe 

Baillon's crake 

Landrail, or com crake 

Gallinule, or water hen 

Coot 

Bean goose 

Wigeon 

Teal 

Mallard, or common duck 

Black tern 

Roseate tern 

Eittiwake 

Skua 

Northern diver 

Gannet, or solan goose 

Leach's petrel 

Stormy petrel 



Mr. Hewitson 
Mr. Lowe 
Mr. Lowe 



Mr. Lowe 

* * * 

* * * 
Mr. Hinton 
Mr. Lowe 

* » ♦ 
Mr. Lowe 

* * * 
Mr. Lowe 



Mr. Hinton 



Mr. Lowe 



Mr. Penfold 

* * * 
Mr. Penfold 
Mr. Lowe 
SirW.Jardine 

* * * 

* ♦ * 

* * ♦ 
Mr. Lowe 
SirW.Jardine 
Doubtful 



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168 TABLES OF NAVIGATION. [apfskdix. 

III. 
TABLES OP NAVIGATION. 
Thb subjoined tables of navigation, with wbich I have been 
favoured by Mr. Oaldbeck, commander of the Madeira packet 
brig " Brilliant,** may prove interesting and useful to such as 
contemplate a yacht voyage to Madeira. 

** Some difference of opinion appearing to exist as to the 
actual distance between Southampton and Funchal, I beg 
to offer you the results of a few calculations I have worked 
with reference to the subject The maritime positions are 
deduced from Table 8, in the * Practice of Navigation,' by 
Lieutenant Raper, RN., and which valuable book has ob- 
tained for its author the prize of the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

*' The various points assumed in the route are those which 
would successively be reached by a ship bound to Madeira, 
with a fair wind, and in moderate weather. A probability of 
a scant wind (t. e. a breeze barely permitting the vessel 
to pursue her course), or the circumstance of a mountainous 
north-westerly swell, rolling in from the Atlantic upon the 
rugged shores of Gallicia, would of course tend to modify 
this track in some measure. 

** To those possessing yachts and sufficiently ambitious to 
wish to vary the monotony of cruizes * round the Bramble, ' 
• up Southampton Water,* and * down to Bembridge,* by a 
dash into the western wave, the Table of Courses and Dis- 
tances may be of use; while, with regard to the navigation of 
those seas to which the table refers, any modem book of 
sailing directions is sufficientiy explicit. 

** Much stress having lately been laid upon the advantages 
to be derived from sailing upon the orthodromic curve, corn- 



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APPBiTDix.] GBEAT CIBOLE SAILING. 16§ 

monly called 'Great Circle Sailing/ it is as well to re- 
mark that, when sailing from Southampton to Madeira^ the 
rhumb line (or track cutting all meridians at the same 
angle) approximates so closely to an arc of a great circle, 
owing to the veiy trifling difference of longitude between the 
positions as compared with the difference of latitude, that the 
unsophisticated seaman, while shaping his course by either 
Mercator*s or middle latitude sailing, is, without knowing it, 
sailing closely upon an arc of a great circle, and consequently 
upon the most direct route. For example, the distance be- 
tween the Lizard Point in England and Funchal is, by Mer- 
cator's sailing, 1164 geographical miles, and by great circle 
sailing 1168, only one mile shorter. 

" I add, for the benefit of the amateur sailor, this case 
worked out both by the usual method (Mercator's sailing) and 
by great circle sailing. 

" MEBCATOB. 

" Let difference of latitudes s a, and meridional diff. of 
lats. = u ; diff. of longitude = A ; bearing, or course, = ; 
distance required = x. 



* 
*f 
A 


'TO 


FIND THB C0VB8B8. 

1389 Log . . 8-145507 

Eadius . 10-000000 

703 Log . . 2-846955 



= S. 26-42' W. Tangent . 9-701448 

"to UND THB DISTAVOB. 

Eadius 10-000000 

a = 1040 Log .... 8-017033 
0= 26-42' Secant . . . 10-048968 



x=ilUi Log 8-066001 



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170 OBBAT CntOLE SAII/[Ne. CAPPBiTDix. 

**OBBAT GIBOLE 8AILINO. 

'* Let co-latitude of Lizard = ff; co-lat. of Funchal = y ; 
difference of longitude = A ; difference of co •latitude = fA ; 
bearing from Lizard = x ; bearing from Funchal = p ; dis- 
tance required = a. 

"TO rUD THl DIBTAHOB. 

A = 40<' 02^0116 . . . . 9-808368 

y = 57 22 line ... . 9*925884 

A =11 48 log sine iq. . . 8*017789 

Constant log . 6*801030 

Natural number 11287 = 4052571 log. 
^ -= l?"" 20' Ter. sine 045412 



056699 yersed tine 19° 28' 
X 60 

MUes 1163 =s X 

"to F^rD THl BiAimros. 

X := 19'' 28' sine 9*520990 sine 9*520990 

A= 11 48 sine 9*807650 sine 9*807650 

yss57 22 sine 9*925884 . /3 = 40'' 02^ sine 9*808868 



31*^ 01' 02"«9*712044 9*595028 

180 28° 10' 87" = f 



148 58 58 



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APPBVOU.] 



TABLE OF COURSES AND DISTANCES. 



171 



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INDEX. 



Aedaiola, Senhor Liiiz, 21. 
Alegria, 16. 

, Allotment of land, 65. 
Anchorage, 2. 
Anna D'Arfet, history o^ 64. 

Santa, 16, 19, 21, 22, 24, 60. 

Antonio, S*«, 16. 

da Sena, 16, 23, 24, 46. 

Airiero, Pico, 12. 

Assoma, Pico, 28. 

Banana, 114. 
>Beauty, 91. 
Beef, 29. 

Bemfeitorias, 96, 108. 
Birds that breed in Madeira, list of, 
165. 

described, 

116. 

list of stragglers in Madeira, 
.166. 
Bishops appointed, 69. 

staff of, 70. 

Boa Ventura, '20. 
Boarding-houses, 27. 

-^Boating excursions, 16. 

Boats, 81. 

Bojador, 61, 62. 
- Buildings, 4. 

Burial-grounds, English, 33. 

BurroqueroB, 8. 

Cactus, 113. 
Calhao, N. S. do, 44. 



Oalheta, 19. 

Gamacha, 15. 

Camera de Lobos, 10, 13. 

Caminho de Meio, 16, 23. 

Campanario, 14. 

Canary Islands, 51, 112.. 

Canical, 16, 24, 65. \ 

fossil beds at, 17. 

Cape Girio, 16. 
Caseiro, 108. 
Cathedra], 4. 

Cedar, Madeiran, 113. 
Censuses, 58, 54. 

Cholera, 51. . — ' 

Clara, Santa, 66, 71. 
Clergy, salary of, 70. 

of the Cathedral, 70. 

Clothing, 29. 

Clouds, 46. 

Club, Portuguese, 34. 

Cochineal, 113. 

Collegiate Churches, 68. 

Colonos, 108. 

Columbus, 62, 63. 

Commercial rooms, Portuguese, 34. 

Conyents, 71. 

Conveyances, 7. 

means of, to Madeira, 25. 

Corals, 126. 

Com, cultivation of, 99. 

varieties of, 100. 

threshing of, 101. 

grinding of, 101. 

Cow, 104. 

I 2 



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174 



INDEX. 



. Crimmalf, 82. 
Oropi, rotation o^ 100. 
Cnuado, 28. 
Canal das Freiiai^ 11, 20. ~ 

short road to the, 12. 

Little, 16. 

Daguerreotype, 6. 
. Dampness, 47. 
Dearths, 106. 
Deluges, 44. 
Dollars, 28. 
Donatories, 6ii, 67. 
Dragon tree, 112. 
" Dress of the poor, 90. 

Ecclesiastical affiurs, 68. 

Courts, 69. ^ 

Education, places of, 72. 

Elections, 89. 

Emigration, 52, 54, 55. ^ 

Entroza Pass, 20. 

Bstreito, 10. x^ 

Exports and Imports, tables of, 106. 

Faial, 24, 25. .^ 

vista of, 22. 

Fire on the south of Madeira, 98, 94, 

111. 
Fishes, 124. 
Flax, 102. 
-Flowers, 115. 
Folhado, 112. 
' Forests, 112. 
Foija de Ferreiro, 16. 
Fruits and vegetables, 114. 
Funchal, why so called, 3. 

passion for building in, 5. 

roads about, 9. 

. mean annual temperature o( 



Funchal, constituted a city, 66. 
Diocese o^ 70. 

^Geoh)gy, 127. ^ 
Girio, expedition to, 18, 16. 
Gonqalo, Fort, 16. 
Oorgulho, 16. 
Government, original, 66. 
Governor, Civil, 79. 
Governors, appointment of, 65. 

- Hanunocks, 7. 
Harmattan, 45, 46. 
Henry, Prince, 61, 93. 
Horses, very sure-footed, 9. 

price of, 80. 

hire o^ 80. 

food of, 31. 



37. 



Hospital, 74. 



r,76. 



Ms in, 42. 



- annual quantity of rain that 



Husbandry, instruments of, 104. 

Inheritance, laws of, 82. 

Insects, 125 

Invasion by French privateers, 66. 

Jardim, 10, 18, 17.- 

Jorge, S*?, 21. "---. 

Judges, 79. 
Jury, 81. 

Labouring classes, 107. — . 
Lamuceiras, 28. 
Levadas, 105. 
L'Est^, nature of, 45. 
cause of, 46. 



Libramento, church of the, 11. 

Library, English, 34. 

Lodgings, 26. 

Longevity, 50. 

Lourenqo, S»«>, 15, 22, 23, 24. 

Luminosity of the ocean, 126. 

Lyceum, 78. 



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IHDEX. 



175 



\ 



Kachieo, U, 16, 2i, 64, 6$, 69. 

Machim'i d^pel, U, 64. 

history of, 64. 

- Kadeiia, ancient history of, 57, 6S, 
59, 60. 

approach to, 1. 

. English possession oi^ 67. 

Gbvemment o^ 77. 

judicial and administratiTe 

divisions of, 78. 

longitude and latitude o^ 1. 

manu&ctures o^ 91, 92, 

passes into the dominion of 



Spam, 67. " 

re-discoyery of, 61. 

signification of the i 

scenery of, 5. 

Maise, 81, 102. 

Manure, 100. 

Maria, Donna, 68. 

Martinho, S^, 16. 

Medusse, 126. 

Mendicity asylum, 77. 

Metade YaUey, 22, 23, 24. 

Miguel, Dom, 6S. 

Mil reis, 28. 

Milho, 81, 102. 

Military affidrs, 88. 

Mirantes, 10. 

Monastic estahlishments, 71. 

Money, 28. 

Monopolies of Qoyemment, 87. 

Morgado, 10» 88. 

Mount church, 2, 16. 

Mutton, 29. 

Navigation, tables of, 168. 
Nossa Senhora do Monte, 2. 
da Piedade, 16. 

Opuntia, 118. 
Order of Christ, 68. 
Oxen, 7, 82. 



«,62. 



Pala&quins, 7. 
Palheiro, 15, 16. 

Pahn trees, 118. ^ - ^ 

Parties, 85. 

Passports, 25. 

Paul da Serra, 12, 18. 

Penha d'Aguia, 15, 22, 28, 24. 

Peseta, 28. 

Pestrello, 61. 

Picnics, 9. 

Pico Grande, 11, 12, 17. 

Kuivo, 12, 15, 21, 28. 

Piedade, N. S. da, 16. 

Pine trees, 103. -- _^^ 

Pistareen, 28. 

Plants peculiar to Madeira, 115." — " ~ 

Sir Hans Sloane's list of, 137. 

Bewicke and Oonybeare's list., 

of, 151. 
Ponta do Sol, 16. 

Delgada,19. 

Poor, dress of, 90.^ _ - 

habitations o^ 90. 

Population, 51. ^ 
Portella, 15, 24. 
Porto Moniz, 18. 

Santo, 15, 61, 63, 70, 77, 89. 

da Crus, 24. 

Potato, 103, 107. 

sweet, 100, 107. 

Praia Formosa, 16, 67. 
Prazas, 4. 
ProTisions, 29. 

Public institutions, 74. 
revenues, 85. 



Quarantine, 51. 
Quinta, 9, 27. 

Babaqal, views of the, 19. 
levada of the, 18. 



Bace course, 81. 

Rain, Heberden's observations on, 42. 



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176 



INDEX. 



Bain, Maion'i obferratioiit on, 48. 

Bainj MMon, 44. 

Religiouf todetitfi 71. ^^ -..^^^^ 

Beptilet» 128. 

Rerennes, 86. 

RibeiiB BmiB, 16, 17. 

JaneUa, 19. 

Ribeiro Frio, 28, 24. 
BidM, 8, 16. 
Boadi, repain of, 89. 

about Ponchal, 9. 

Eoque, 8~>, 16. 



Saddles, 80. 

Sancta Onu, 14, 16. 

8clioolf,78,74. "^ 

Serrai meaning o^ 15. 

d'Agoa, 12, 17. 

Serrantf, 27. 

Sheep, 104. 

Shrove Tuesday, 84. 

SidrfU), 12. ^ \^ 

Simoom, 46. 

Sirocco, 46. 

Sketching in Hadeira, 6. 

Sluane, Sir Hans, list of plants, 187. 

Snow, 47. 
. Soils, various sorts of, 95. 

Streett, cleanness of, 4. 

Summary of the appearance of Ma* 
deira, 24. 
' Summer, 49. 

Sunset, 47. 

Sugar-cane, 93, 94. 

Tchu-tchu, 114. 

Tea, 29. 

Temperature, tables o( Dove, 88. 

Heberden, 89. 



Tempamtnre, tables of. Mason, 40. 

Haroourt, 41. 

Donkin, 41. 

-Tenant, relation between kndlord 

and, 108. 
Tenerifie, 26, 112, 115, 130, 135. 
Theatricals, 84. 
Threshing, 101. 
TU, 112. 
Tobacco, 29, 87. 
Torrinhas, 12, 28. 
Tostio, 28. 
Turrets, 5. 
Turtles, 124. • . 

Une trees, 15, 112, 114. 
UnseUa, 87, 88. 

Yas, Trist&o, 61, 65. 
Veal, 29. 

Yincente, expedition to S^, 17. 
Encumeado of S"°, 17. 



Yine, 98. 

cultivation o^ 94. 

best districts for, 96. 

Yinhatico, 112. 

Visit boat, 8. 

Wages, 107. 
Weeds, 102. 
Wine, duties on, 86. 

exportation of, 97. 

various kinds o^ 98. 

manufacture o^ 98. 

Worship, British places of, 88. 

Yams, 103, 107. 

Zarco, 61, 64, 65, 66, 69, 74. 



O. Woodfidl and Son, Printers, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London. 



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Juit published, as a companion to this volume, folio, 
A SERIES OF 

SKETCHES IN MADEIRA, 

By lady SUSAN VERNON HARCOURT. 



Thomas M'Lian, 26, Hatmarket, Londoh. 



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A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

OF 

ME. MURRAY'S 
HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

A SERIES OF ORIGINAL WORKS OR POPULAR REPRINTS. 



*^* The Series complete in 76 ParUy price £9 10a. Od. sewed; or in 37 Volumes, 
£11 Is. Od, strongly bound in Cloth, 



LONDON : 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE-STREBT. 

JANtJARY, 1851. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



PROSPECTUS- 

Mb. Murray wms indneed io itaue ikis fieries of Wotka, in conse- 
quence of the Acts which had recently passed the British Parlia- 
ment for the protection of the rights of British authors and puh- 
lishers, hy the rigid and entire exclusion, hoth in Great Britain and 
her Colonies, of foreign pirated editions. 

These Acts, for the first time, directed into the right channel the 
demand of the Colonies for English Literature : a demand of which our 
authors and publishers had hitherto been depriyed by the introduction 
of piracies from the United States, France, and Belgium. In ^)rder, 
therefore, that the highly intelligent and educated population of the 
Colonies might not suffer from the withdrawal of their accustomed 
supply of books, and with a view to obviate the complaint that a check 
might in eonsequence be raised to their intelkotual 4td«SBcement, Mr. 
Murray determined to publish a series of attractive and useful works, 
by approved authors, at a rate which should place them within reach 
of the means not only of the Colonists, but also of a large portion of 
the less wealthy classes at home, who might thus be benefited by the 
widening of the market for our literature. 

The ** Home and Colonial Library" having been sustidned during 
a period of Six Years, the Publisher, anxious to guard against the 
objection of overloading the subscribers with too large a series of 
books of one size, decided on concluding the work with its thirty- 
seventh volume. 

The volumes are printed on superfine paper in a clear and legible 
type, and form a compact and portable Work, the bulk of which does 
not exceed the compass of a single shelf, or of one trunk, suited for 
all classes and all climates. 

Dr. Johnson says : " Books that you may carry to the fire, and 
hold readily in your hand, are the most useful after all. A man 
will often look at them, and he tempted to go on when he would he 
frightened at hooks of a larger size and of a more erudite appear- 
ance. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



This Series. flf Wjoais.iB well suited for— 

The Clebqt — tw fitted for Parochial and Lending JAbraHes, 

Mastebs ofF Families and Manupactubeks— /or the Libmries of '^tetoriesy 
Workshops, cmd Servaaits^ Halls, 

Book Socibtibs, Book Cluss^ kc—for its variety of sfn^bjects. 

School Inspeotobs, ScHOOUttASTERs, ka.—as prizes for the ^owng, or for 
School Libraries. 

Travellers on a Journey — as portable and cheap volumes to read on the 
roadf or to fill a comer in a portmanteau. 

Passengers on Board a Ship — as matei-ials for whiling away the niwnotonoua 
hov/rs ofaasa voyage. 

Ofpicbbs in the Army and Navy, who, hawng limited .aecommodcUvm, 
desire a conoentrated Library, at a moderate eacpenditwre. 

All who have Friends in Distant Countries— cw an acceptable present to 
send out to them. 

The Settler in Australia, America, or our Indian Dominions as the 
resources of recreaition ami vnstruction, at a m/oderate price. 

The Student and Lover of Literature, w7u> has hitherto hem 0(ynierU wUh 
the ham. of a hooky or eompeUed to wait its perusal from, a circulating Hbraaryi, 
may become possessed of the work itself, at a trying cost. 

The following are some of Ihe authors ^o have cpntributed to 
the series : 



Rev. J. Abbott. 
Rev. Charles Acland. 
John Barrow, Esq. 
George Borrow, Esq. 
Charles Buxton, Esq. 
Thomas Campbell, Esq. 
The Earl op Carnarvon. 
Charles Darwin, Esq. 
Captain John Drinkwater. 
The Earl op Eluesmere. 
Richard Ford, Esq. 
Rev. G. R. Gleig. 
Sir Alex. Dupp Gordon. 
Lady Dupp Gordon. 
John Drummond Hay, Esq. 
H. W. Haygarth, Esq. 
Sir Francis B. Head. 
Bishop Heber. 



Captain Irby. 
"Washington Irving, Esq. 
Author op " Letters prom the 

Baltic." 
Author op " Letters prom Madras." 
M. G. Lewis, Esq. 
Lord Mahon. 
Sir John Malcolm. 
Captain Mangles. 
Dr. Meinhold. 
Hermann Melville, Esq. 
Mrs. Charles Meredith. 
Captain Milman. 
George F. Ruxton, Esq. 
Robert Southey, Esq. 
Bayle St. John, Esq. 
Charles St. Joein, Esq. 
Varnhagen Von Ense. 
&c. &c &C. 

b 2 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL UBRARY. 



The Works maj be claBsified under the foUowmg heads :— 
VOYAGES, TRAVELS, AND ADVENTURES. 




A Rebidknce in Sierra Leone. 
BoRROw's Bible in Spain. 
Hebeb's Journals in India. 
Head's Journeys across the Pampas. 
Irbt and Manoles' Trateis in Stria 

AND Holt Land. 
Ruzton's Adventures in Mexico. 
Mbs. Meredith's New South Wales. 
Hat's Western Barbart. 
Melville's South Sea Islands. 



Wj 



Edwards' Votaoe up the Rtver 

Amazon. 
Letters from the Baltic. 
Lewis's Riesidence in the 

Indies. 
St. John's Adventures in the Ltbian 

Desert. 
Carnarvon's Portugal and Gal- 

UCIA. 



\ 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



Father Ripa's Account of the Court 

or China. 
Malcolm's Sketches of Persia. 
Letters from Madras. 
Manners and Customs or India. 



BoRRow's Qtpsies or Spain. 
MissioNART Lite in Canada. 
Ford's Gatherings from Spain. 
Haygarth's Bush Life in Australia. 



BIOGRAPHY. 



Ldtes of Cromwell and Buntan. 
Life or Sir Francis Drake. 
Lite or The Great CondI 
Life or Lord Clive. 

AUTOBIOGRAPHT 07 HeNRT StEFFENS. 



Life of Sir Thomas Munro. 
Life of Oliver Goldsmith. 
Life of Sir Fowell Buxton. 
Lives of the British Poets. 



GENERAL LITERATURE. 



The Railroad, Electric Telegraph, 

AND Britannia Bridges. 
The Amber-Witch. 
Bracebridge Hall. 



LivoNiAN Tales. 
Watside Cross. 
Tales of a Traveller. 



HISTORY. 



The Siege of Gibraltar. 
Fall of the Jesuits. 
The Sieges of Vienna. 
Liberation War in Germant. 
Battle of Waterloo. 



Campaigns at Washington. 
French in Algiers. 
Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan. 
Historical Essats. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



Wild Sports or the Highlands. 

*»* Each work may he obtained eeparatdy, 



A Naturalist's Votagb round the 
World. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



Vol. lor Parts 1—2. 

The Bible in Spain; 

OR THE JOURNEYS, ADVENTURES, AND IMPRISONMENTS OF AN ENGLISHMAN 
IN AN ATTEMPT TO C3IRCULATE THE SCRIPTURES IN THE PENINSULA. 

BY GEORGE BORROW. 

^^ It is not our wish to go into any examination or discussion either of the 
prudence of the Bible Society on this occasion or of the actual state of the 
Spanish Church. Our business is literary. We conceive that Mr. Borrow has 
come out as an English author of high mark. Considering the book merely as 
one of adventures, it seems to us about the most extraordinary one that has 
appeared in our own, or indeed in any other language, for a very long time past. 
Indeed we are more frequently reminded of Gil BUs, in the narratives of this 
pious, single-hearted man. * * We hope that we ourselves shall soon see again 
in print our < cherished and most respectable Borrow ;' and mean time congra- 
tulate him sincerely on a work which must vastly increase and extend his 
reputation — ^which bespeaks everywhere a noble and generous heart — a large 
and vigorous nature, capable of sympathisuig with everything but what is bad — 
religious feelings deep and intense, but neither gloomy nor narrow — a true eye 
for the picturesque, and a fund of real racy humour.'' Quarterly Review. 

^ The work of a man of invincible zeal and activity as a missionary, possessing 
a frame and constitution which no hardship could subdue, and an ardour of 
curiosity which, in the prosecution of his most holy purpose, led him to explore 
every nook and crevice of Spain and Portugal, so that these countries were never 
80 indefatigably investigated before, or so minutely painted." Weekly Messenger, 



Vols. 2—3 or Parts 3—6. 

A Journey through India. 

OM CALCUTTA TO BOMBAY (WITH NOTES UPON CEYLON), AND 
A JOURNEY TO MADRAS AND THE SOUTHERN PROVINCES. 

BY BISHOP HEBER. 

" Of a book so well known as Bishop Heber*s Journal of his Travels through 
India, little is necessary to be said in noticing its appearance in this cheap form. 
Five shillings will soon purchase what once cost ten times as much ; and was 
worth it a thousand times, if money could measure the value of such a book. 
We remember it as one of the most perfectly charming books of travels that we 
ever read ; gentle, tolerant, humane, and full of wisdom ; a religious book in the 
best sense of the word, because full of charity. It is lively without effort, and 
abounds in valuablejudgments of men and things, without one harsh, sarcastic, 
or ilUberal word. We envy those who have it now in their power to read, for 
the first time. Bishop Heber's Indian Journal." Examiner, 

^ Has all the charm of romance with the sterling value of truth. It is emi- 
nently the most Christian — because the most charitable and tolerant work of the 
kind ever written. Residents in India have repeatedly borne testimony to the 
fidelity of its notices of men and things." Oxford HerM, 



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6 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

Vol. 4 or Part 7. 

Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and the Holy Land. 

INCLUDING A JOURNEY ROUND THE DEAD SEA AND THROUGH THE 
COUNTRY EAST OP THE JORDAN. 

BY THE HON. O. L. IRBV TANO JA8. MANGLES, R. N. 

^TIm gntA nnmbera of Txriton to Egypt and the Holy Land which thoee fair 
citiflB inyite will be glad to find such works as Messrs. Irby and Mangles pre- 
ssttted to tbMn. TbSy are pioneers who render the task of liieir successors an 
ea^ and a pleasant one, while it is curious and interesting also to contrast the 
labour and risk they eneomntered with the facili^ now afforded. The tour of 
the Hon. Charies- Leonaird Irby] and James Mangles, Commanders in the 
Royal Navy, wa» made in 1816-20. They printed, on their return, for private 
droulation <mly, aselectioB of the letters they had addressed during their f&aenee 
to their friends in Engkmd, as the most couTenient mode of satisfying the 
inquiries of numerous friends. These copies were so mudi in request, that the 
writers requssted Mr. Murray, as a small mark of friendship and esteem, to 
aso^ the copyright, and give the book publicity in the more popular form of 
his Colonial and Home Library. The traTellers absolutely explored Egypt, 
Nubia, and Syria^ besides making a tour to Petra and the Dead Sea* To give 
extracts from such a mass of reiding would be easy ; but what part should we 
select in preference to another, where every page is foil of interest %" 

Scimpihire Advertuer. 



Vol 4 or Part 8. 

History of the Siege of Gibraltar, 1779—83. 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OP THAT-GARRISON FROM THE EARLIEST PERIODS. 
BY CAPTAIN JOHN DRINKWVTER. 

^ ^ Drinkwater's Siege of Gibraltar' is a work of great interest, although 
written many years ago. The author was present at, and took part in, the siege 
during the whole period of its continuance. His materials are collected from 
personal observation, and &t)m the observations of other officers. It appears 
very much in the form of a journal, and deals, not in speculation, but in facts. 
The siege lasted for upwards of three years, namely, from 1779 to 1783. The 
preparations, on a vast scale, made by the combined forces of France and Spain, 
by land and sea, against Gibraltar ; the preparations made by the besieged in 
the mean time in defence ; and the state into which the garrison was frequently 
brought because of the scarcity of provisions, are all described in the mo^ inte- 
resting manner. There is something about the very minuteness of detail into 
whidi the author goes that gives to the work its greatest excellence. Prefixed to 
this edition is a plan of the rock and the Spaniel lines, with an index of refer- 
ences." Stiriing ObseTvei\ 

^ A book so replete with interest and information as to be trulpr a legend of 
the United Services of the day." United Service Magasane, 



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MUBrBAY'S HOMli AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 7 

VoU 5 on Pant 9. 

Moroeco and the Moors ; 

OR WESTERN BARBABY,—IT8 WILD TRIBES AND SATAGE ANIMALS. 
BV JOHr^ \¥. DRUMMOMGr HAV. 

"Here is an original and very delightful book of travels and adventures, pub- 
lished for Half-a-cpown. Mr. Sorrow's relish for the Gipsey slang was not' 
greater than Mr. H^y's for the romantic Arab exaggeration." Examiner, 

" Animated^ varied, readable, and fresh." Spectator, 

^^ This is quite an amuang book, brimful of adventure, redolent of savage life^ 
and saturated with lively gossip about boar and Uon hunting, cheiq>ening horses^, 
meeting robbers and gypsies, visiting Arab tent% and a^ variety of other fMrntrnXf* 
hiliOf l£at may be reckoned among < the incidents of travel ' in a new and wild 
country. The author is- the British Consul at Tangiei', and undertook his journey 
into Barbary for the purpose of procuring for Queen Victoria' a barb of the 
purest blood, from some of the breeders of horses in the region around Laraiche. 
In this commission he was unsuccessful ; but he saw a good deal of the country 
and the people, which has afforded him excellent material for the present 
volume." Ediriburgh Advertiser. 

^ The author introduces us to the wild people among whom, he travelled ; he 
rides along their ^d roads, encamps with the swarthy Moozs,,and, sitting at 
their evening meal,, listens to the strange tales of mighty robbers, or daring, ex- 
ploits with the wild beasts." Cheltenham ChromcU, 



Vol. 5 or Part 10. 

Letters from the Shores of the Baltic, 

BY A LADY. 

"So few books open anything likea-distinet.v^ew of the state of society in any 
department of the Russian empire, that this publication would have been accept- 
able, even had its mere Hterary merit been inconsiderable. It affords a clearer 
notion of the interior life of Esthonia — of the country, the proi^oial capital, the 
nobiliiy, the peasanlry, the agriculture economy— but, above all, of the real 
demestic economy and habits of the local gentry — than we have been able to 
gatiier ftam fdl the travels in our library respecting any other sectbn of that 
immense territory, and thafr ii^nitely diversified population. But this mig^ 
l»ve be«i aocompUshed by a comparatively unskilfhl penj so it yr%BQ but; tm 
honest one.. Here we have the results of close feminine- observation in atnevr 
sphere, set. down with such an easy, unafiected grace of language, as might have 
given greafr attraotieutto a ddineaticm of the most: hackneyed scenery and tha. 
moaifMmiliar manners." Q^aiierly.Bem&ub, 

"* Familiar Letters ' by a young- and beautiful and mtty EngHsh spinstaFy 
whose work wffl cause a sensation hardly inferior tO' that which attended tba 
bursting- of the *- Old Man's Brunnen Bubbles.' " Quarterly Review. 



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8 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

VqL 6 or Part 11. 

The Amber-Witch. 

THE MOST INTERESTING TRIAL FOR WITCHCRAFT EVER KNOWN. 

TRANSLATED BY LADY DUFF GORDON. 

^ If this work be genuine, it is undoubtedly, u it announces itself, the most 
interesting of all those strange trials for witchCTaft,so absorbing, and sometimes so 
inexplicable, which occur at a certain period in almost every country in Europe ; 
if it be a fiction, it is worthy — ^we can give no higher praise — of Defoe. The 
editor professes to have found the manuscript in a manner by no means impro- 
bable, yet rather too like that which the author of Waverley, as well as many 
otiiers of inferior name, have been so fond of playing off upon us. It was 
brought to him by his sexton out of a niche or closet in the church, where it 
had long lain hid among a heap of old hymn-books and useless parish accounts. 
We have read nothing for a long time, in fiction or in history, which has so com> 
pletely riveted and absorbed our interest" Quarterly Beview, Jime 1844. 

^ The Amber Witch is one of the ' Curiosities of Literature,' for in the last 
German edition, the author is obliged to prove that it ia entirely a work of 
imagination, and not, as almost all the Grerman critics believed it to be when it 
appeared, the reprint of an old chronicle. It was, in fact, written as a trap for 
the disciples of Strauss and his school, who had pronounced the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments, from Historical reseiarch, assisted by < internal evi- 
dence,' to be a collection of legends. Meinhold did not spare them when tiiey fell 
into the snare, and made merry with the historical knowledge and critical 
acumen that could not detect the contemporary romancer under the mask of 
the chronicler of two centuries ago, while they decided so positively as to the 
authority of the most ancient writings in the world." Times, July, 1850. 

Vol. 6 or Part 12. 

Lives of John Bunyan and Oliver Cromwell. 

BY ROBERT SOUTHEY. 

^The lives of Cromwell and Bunyan demand a biographer like Southey, 
willing as well as able, to do full justice to the merits of the great usurper, and 
the honest zeal of tiie author of the * Pilgrim's Progress,' while he does not fail to 
impress upon his readers the warning lesson to be learnt from the rebellion of the 
one, and the schism of the other. They are biographies valuable from the connec- 
tion of their subjects with the Constitution and Religion of England — especially 
valuable for the lessons of wisdom they are calculated to afford, and which 
Southey, above all o^ers, knew how to draw from them." ComwaU Moyal Gazette, 

^Models of what biography ought to be ; not swelled into huge tomes, occu- 
pying more space than fiie history of a nation ; yet embracing all the facts in 
the hves of their respective subjects that can be of any interest. We always 
prefer biographies that are written by persons of friendly or congenial feelings. 
These biographies of Southey^s are gems in their respective cla»s." 

Freeman's Journal. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 9 

Vol. 7 OP Part 13. 

Notes and Sketches of New South Wales. 

DUKING A RESIDENCE IN THAT COLONY FROM 1839 TO 1844. 
BY MRS. CHARLES MEREDITH. 

" Mrs. Meredith is a pleasant unaffected writer ; and the book derives interest 
from being a lady's view of New South Wales." SpectcUor, 

" This unpretending little book has, by rare mischance, been hidden under the 
heayy and dull ware with which that season is apt to burden our Hbrary table. 
But Mrs. Meredith's sense and sprightliness were sure to bring her to light. As 
Miss Twamley, she was known for a writer of elegant poetry, and picturesque 
botanical works. Here she takes a pleasant place among the company of travellers, 
who bid fair to beat rougher men out of the field." AthencBum, 

^ A narrative and picture, by an actual resident, of the present state and 
prospects, together with the resources of the colony. * My aim,' she says, ' is 
simply to give my own impressions of whatever appeared worthy of observation, 
and to render my work interesting by true descriptions of the scenery, people, 
and the other various objects which strike a new comer. I have sketched every- 
day things with a faithful and homely pencil. My own observations and my 
husband's long experience in these colonies, have been my sole resource." 

BeWs Weekly Messenger. 



Vol. 7. or Part 14. 

Life, and Voyages of Sir Francis Drake. 

WITH NUMEROUS ORIGINAL LETTERS FROM HIM AND THE LORD HIGH 
ADMIRAL TO THE QUEEN AND GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE. 

BY JOHN BARROW. 

'^ Independently of the interest which, from political causes, must, to some 
extent, attach itself at present to the appearance of a work of this nature, it 
cannot faU to be welcomed by all, as containing a record of the actions of one of 
the most extraordinary men that this country has ever produced. Perhaps of 
no other man, who bore so conspicuous a part in the occurrences of his own 
times, can it be aaid that such meagre and scanty materials have be^n trans- 
mitted to posterity of his public actions and conduct. The general outlines of 
his history are well known. That he was a daring and successful naval com- 
mander — that he was a bold and adventurous explorator and discoverer, are 
matters which are almost simultaneously imbibed with the elements of our 
education ; but little is known of him as to those points of individual character 
which give such tone and force to a biographical outline, and by which alone the 
subject of this memoir can be made to stand out, in his own distinctive character, 
from the race of men by whom he was surrounded — in many respects, similar 
to himself. Mr. Barrow's work has great merit ; the author has presented us 
with a memoir which we hail as a welcome addition to our biographical 
literature." Morning Chronicle, 



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10 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



V0L8 or Part 15. 

Memoi» of Father Bipa. 

DURINa THIBTEEN YEARS' RESIDENCB AT THE COURT OF PEKING, 
IN THE SERVICE OF THE EMPEROR OF CHINA. 

^ A condenaation of the most interestiDg portions of Father Ripa's History of 
the Chinese College, which was published at Naples, in the year 1832. This 
venerable priest went to Chma about the oonnnencement of the last century, 
where he made a protracted resdenoe, and was much noticed by the reigning 
Emperor, who treated him with unnsnal kindness and oendesemnon, and 
allowed him to see the interior of his palaces and pkasure-gronnds, and obtain 
an insight into his domestic mode of life — an honour neT«r before granted to 
European travellers. Father Ripa was not ^w to avail himself of the o^rtu- 
nities he enjoyed, and wrote a lengthy account of his residence in Chma, of 
which the present book is an abridgment, and from which we gather that 
manners, and customs, and prejudices in the Celestial Empire, are little, if at 
all, altered from what they were upwards of a century ago. Civilisation, that 
has made itself felt, more or less, in every other part of the world, has been at a 
complete stand-still among the Chinese, who seem to pride themselves on theur 
inveterate prejudices, and the unchangeable character of their customs and 
institutions.'' Swn, 

'^ As interesting a work as any that has appeared, not excepting Borrow's 
Bible in Spain." Spectator, 



VoL 8 or Part 16. 

Journal of a Eesidence in the West Indies. 

BY MATTHEW GREGORY LEWIS. 

^ This book possesses three ieuomiiK ndatiooa» — its subject, its writer, and its 
intrinsic agreeableness. It is one of those works which we would not willingly 
suffer to pass unnoticed. This Journal stands high among works of a simil^ 
kind, for grace, lightness, pleasantry, descriptive power, feli(sty of expression, 
and conversational fhienoy and freedom." Edvnhurgk Review, 

** I would give many a sugar 'Cane, 
Mkt. Lewis were alive again." Lord Byron, 

" This ia indeed a curiosity : it is a posthumous production of the author of 
< The Monk,' and we are inclined to say the best of all the creations of his pen. 
As to the literary merits of the posthumous book, we have already expr^sed 
our high notion of than ; and, indeed, on that point,^ there can, we think, be 
little dijBerence of opinion. The graphic power displayed, whether in sketching 
scenery, manners, or incidents, appears to us not only high, but first rate ; su(£ 
as entitles the < West India Proprietor ' to be ranked with Washington Irving, 
in such pieces as the ' Visit to PaXos,' — with Mr. Matthews^ in the very best 
pages of the < Diary of an Invalid,' — nay, we hardly hesitate to say, with Misft 
£<^^eworth, in the brightest pages of * Castle Rackrent,' — or Lord Byron him> 
self." Quarterly Mmew, 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 11 

Vol. 9 or Parts 17—18. 

Sketches of Persia; 

OR THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE PERSIANS. 
BY SIR JOHN MALCOLM. 

'' Sir John Malcolm ia a perfect master in the delineation of character. With 
a few bold strokes he gives life and expression to his personages, and with the 
utmost ease and apparent faithfulness portrays both individual and national 
characteristics. The language, the Uterature, the customs, the manners, the 
superstitions of Persia are familiar to him. These superior qualifications, along 
with the deUcious scraps of poetry and prose, fable and philosophy, which are 
scattered through the work, make it one of the most instructive and delightful 
books." Atlas, 

"No one can read « Sketches of Persia' (by Sir John Malcolm), without 
feeling that the author has made a valuable addition to our stock of knowledge. 
New and important views of the Persians as a nation are here presented with 
all the interest, without the tendency to caricature, of our amusing friend Hajji 
Baba." Quarterly Review. 

*' These sketches are not historical — ^they are not antiquarian ; they do not 
abound in picturesque deseriptions of the country, nor are they the notes of a 
tourist They are sketches of Persia by a gentleman, a scholur, and a man of 
the world, not conveyed in descriptions by himself, but in an exquisite succession 
of anecdotes, conversations, and tales fronr the mouths of natives themsdves. 
It embraces stories of the king, the ministers, the chiefs, the inhabitants of every 
sort ; and the whole has the interest of a novel.** Edmbwrgh Weekly Register, 

VoLlOorPart 19. 

The French in Algiers. 

I. THE SOLDIER OP THE FOREIGN LEGION!— H. THE PRISONERS OF 
ABD-EL-KADEB. 

TRANSLATED BY LAOT DUFF GORDON. 

'^ At young Oldenburgh soldier. Lieutenant Lamping, anxious to seek adven- 
tures, resigned his commission, in 1839, and proceeded to Spain, to offer his 
services to Espartero ; but, on his arrival, hostilities had ceased. After having 
remained for some time at Madrid, and having failed in attempts to join the 
army then acting in Arragon,.he determined to proceed to Algiers, and enter 
the Legion service as a volunteer, under the French. He accordingly proceeded 
thither9^and,.in the end of 1840, joined the Legion, and served for two years, in 
the c]4)acity, it ^^^ears, of a corporal of vdtigeurs. His adventures, detailed in 
a series of letters, are here presented, and a- narrative more romantic, or of 
more absorbing., interest, we have s^dom met. The novelty of the scenes, the 
habits and characters of the wild people against whom he served, and the 
hardships and perils encountered, furnish material^ in abundance, of an. exciting 
kind ; and^ the events are described in a plea«ng style of easy epistolary 
narrative* The glimpses which they afford of the barbarities of the French 
African war fully confirm the worst ophiion which we had fonned on the 
subjecfc'* Northern Whig, 



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12 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

VoL10orP*rt25. 

History of the Fall of the Jesuits in the 
18th Century. 

BY COUNT ALEXIS DE SAINT-PRIEST. 

*' An accurate translation of the * Fall of the Jesuits/ hy Count Alexis de 
Saint-Priest Time after time have the nations of Europe been startled by a 
formal suppression of that wonderful body of wonderful men, the disciples of 
Ignatius Loyola, and time after time have they risen uninjured from the opposi- 
tion of popes and princes, to extend the influence of their wily and astute prin- 
ciples, and assert their claims to power and perpetuation. The epoch of this 
temporary downfal, which is chosen in the present narrative, is perhaps the 
most important in their history, namely, in the latter part of the last century. 
A period more eventful in every respec^ and one of more historical importance, 
could not have been selected, and the narrator specifies each occurrence which 
led to the great catastrophe of the Jesuits with precision and clearness, even to 
the moment when Pius Vll. issued his bull, < Solickvdo omnium ecclenarvm,* in 
the August of 1814, reinstating the society in all their former privileges, and 
re-establishing them throughout the length and breadth of Christendom. As a 
doAcription of the most remarkable juncture in the ttattu of the most remark- 
able association on the face of the eiurth, this book is both valuable and interest- 
ing." Su/n. 



Vol 11 or Parts 20— 21. 

Bracebridge Hall ; or, The Humourists. 

BY WASHINGTON IRVING. 

" Of the merits of the Sketch-Book, a work which enrolled Mr. Lrving among 
the corps litt&aire of the mother country, we need not now repeat our opinion. 
' Bracebridge Hall* is an amplification of a particular part of it, devoted to the 
illustration of old English manners and customs as they exist in the more pri- 
mitive counties, and enlivened by just sufficient of narrative to impress it on the 
recollection as a whole. Like the author of Waverley, Mr. Irving enters, with 
the eye of a Bewick or a Ward, into all the little amusing habits and predilec- 
tions of the brute creation, and contrives to awaken that interest in the caprices 
and enjoyments of these humble friends, which laughingly, but effectually serves 
the cause of humanity. The same good taste and minute observation charac- 
terise those frequent allusions to sylvan hfe, which in most hands would grow at 
last monotonous, but which in * Bracebridge Hall' are made to address lK»th the 
mental and bodily eye. In the Chapter on Forest Trees there is a meditative 
moral dignity very much reminding us of Southey, and which could hardly have 
been surpassed had the mantle of Evelyn himself fallen on our cousin of New 
York." Quarterly Review, 



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MURRAY^ HOH£ AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 13 

YoL12flrPkrte22— 24. 

A Naturalist's Voyage round the World; 

OB, A JOURNAL OF BESEABCHES DOO THE XATURAL HI5IOBT A!ID GEOLOGY 
OF THE OOUXTBIES VUITED. 

BY CHARLES DARWIN. 

^ Looking at the geoenl bmb of Mr. Darwin's zesnlte, I cannot hdp con- 
sidering his Toyage round the world as one of the most impmiant erents for 
geology which has oeeerred for manjjears." — PraidefU cf the Geolcffieal Societif. 

** Upon the merits of Mr. Darwin's T<Jnnie there can be no two c^inioDS. It 
is up to the scienee €i the da j, and in some instances beyond it There are, 
indeed, no iDnstratioos to the book, but we find ample materials for deep 
thinking ; we haTc the Tirid d eMriptk m that fills the nund's-eye with br^ter 
pictures than painter can present, and the charm arising irom the fredmess of 
heart which is thrown orer these Tiigin pages <rfa strong intellectnal man, and 
an acate and deep obserror. Itis not to iSae scientific alonethat Mr. Darwin's 
Yolome will prore interesting. The general reader will find in it a fond of 
amusement and instruction. Mr. Darwin is a first-rate landscape painter with 
his pen, and eren the dreariest soKtndcs are made to teem with interest." 

Qaorfer^jf J2erie». 

^ An inexhaustible mine of obeenrations and anecdotes of tiie Natural History 
of the South American continent, written with the intdligence of a quick- 
sighted observer, and the tone of a gentleman." Dr. LindUy, 

Toll 3 or Parts 26— 27. 

Life of Louis, Prince of Conde. 

BY LORD MAHON. 

The ^ Life of Cond^" was <niginal]y written by the author in the Frendi 
language, and without any riew <^ publication. A Tery small number of copies 
of that work was printed for a curde of personal friends. Several peracms, 
however, having since expressed a wish for its j^»pearance in our native tongue, 
the following translation, executed under the superintendence and revision of the 
author, is now submitted to the public From the Preface, 

^ That Lord Blahon, after acqinring hig^ distinction as an historical writer 
in his native language, should have thought of composmg am historical volume 
in French, will no doubt excite much wonder. The curiosity of sudian attempt 
by a gentleman so situated is, as we have shown, unexampled among us ; and we 
have to thank him for a highly interesting and skilful narrative. Even more 
singular than Lord Mi^on's choice of the Frendi language on this occasion, is 
the fact that it was reserved for him to collect and combine into a clear con- 
tinuous narrative the French materials for the personal history of one of the 
most illustrious of Frenchmen. No man bwed more to a devoted woman than 
did Cond^ to Clemence de Maille ; nor was devotion ever more ungratefully 
repaid. By Lord Bfahon, the adventures of the princess are skilf^y inter- 
woven with those of her husband, and commented on with a generous warmth 
of feeling which constitutes, to ourselves, the liveliest charm of this delightftd 
book." Qwuieriy Beview. 



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U MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



VoLUorPMrt»2a— 29. 

The ZincaU; or Gypsies of Spam. 

BY QEORQE BORROW. 

** A curious, a very curious work, and contaiiis some of the most singular, yet 
authentic descriptions of the gipsy ZAoe^ which famre ever been given to the 
public." Litenury Qautte. 

<< Welcome in its present, or in any shape, is Mr. Gleitfge Bottow's aieomtnt 
of the ^ GHpsies in Spain :' it carries with it such a freshness, fiuch«n aunatioD, 
and such an air of truthfulness and nature, as to arrest our attention and engage 
our i^mpathies. Hence it is, that although it now appears before us simply as a 
reprint, we -turn to it again with all the undiminished i^petite of noyelty^jceady 
to wander once more in its wanderings, to. conjecture once more with its c(m> 
jectures, to laugh with its laughter, to meditate with its meditations. By its 
own .unassisted merits this publication has acquired no inconsiderable p^ulari^, 
and .the secret of its success is merely attributable to two £u!ts — first, the 
extreme novelty of the undertaking ; and, secondly, that whatever is narrated 
flows from the minuto and personal observations of one intimately conversant 
with his subject Altogether, < Borrow*s Qipsies in Spain' bears about it such 
a newness of tone and material, that it forms an acceptable addition to litera- 
ture, and Mr. Murray could not well have selected a better book for his 
serial." Sun, 



Vol. 13 or Parte 30—31. 

Typee ; or, The Manjuesas Islaaods ; 

A NAKRATIVE OP A FOUE ^KBTTHS* JMMDDBNCE AMONG THE NATIVES. 

BY HERMANN MELVILLE. 

^' Since the joyous moment when we first read ^Robimon 'Crusoe, tmd believed 
it all, and wondered all the more because we believed, we have not met with so 
bewitching a work as this narrative of Herman Melville's.'' Jahn Bull, 

" This is really a very curious book. A little celonring there may be here 
and there ; but the result is a thorough impression of reaJity. We must refer 
to the book for his observations of the chief people of the valley : the mildly 
dignified sovereign, Mehevi ; the graceful, winning, irresistible beauty, Fayavvay ; 
the household that lodged lum ; Marheyo and his wife, the only industrious old 
body in the valley ; the young men of the house, roystering, drinking, laughing, 
and unthinking 'blades of savages;' the young ladies, though in' the summer 
costume of Paradise, coquettish .and fantastical, delicate and lady4ike, as 
Parisian belles ; and his faithful but hideous body servant, Kory Kory. He 
passed four moiiths with them, living in their own foshion. At last, he found 
an opportunity of escape by means of the boat of <an English ship, and -so 
returned to America to write this clever book." Eaxmnkter. 

^ The book is a great curiosity in one point of view : it is the first aceonnt 
that has been publi^ed of a residence among the natives of the Polynesian 
Islands, by a person who has lived with them in their own fashion^ and as near 
as may be on terms of social equality." Spectator* 



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MUKBAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 15 

Vol. 16 or Part 32. 

livoniafn Tates. 

I. THE DISPONENT.— II. THE WOLVES^UI. THE JEWESS. 

BY THE AUTHOR OF "BETTERS FROM THE BALTIC." 

*^ We like ihese ^Livonian Tales' much. Not merely do we like them on 
the individuality of their pictures of scenery and life, but, in part, for the absence 
tern them of artistic pretension. They are sketches ri^er than complete 
works — all but guiltless of those attempts at plot which, nine times out of ten, 
end in displaying the inventor's want of contrivance. So long as the lady of the 
^ Baltic Letters' can write < Esthonian' or < Livonian Tales' as good as these, may 
she continue to do «o." AthencBum, 

^ We ^rfectly well remember the sensation caused by ^ Letters from the 
Baltic,' by the authoress of .this volume, revealing, as they did, a picture of 
middle-age barbarism stUl to be witnessed in a secluded nook of northern 
Europe. The same observant touches of character, the same good sense and 
^ood feeling, are apparent in the present tales. Exhausted as the other parts 
of Europe are by travellers, tounsts, and novelists, we should think readers 
of light literature would rush to these Tales for a Uttle novelty." 

Vol. 16 or Part 33. 

Philip Musgrave ; 

OR, MEMOIRS OF A CHURCH OF ENGLAND MISSIONARY IN THE 
NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES. 

BY REV. J. ABBOTT. 

<^ The little work before us is a genuine account of what a missionary's life is 
now in Canada. Under an invented name, it is the story of the writer's own 
experience, told in, a. straightforward and unaffected manner, with considerable 
power of descriptian." Cfuardian, 

^ These memoirs contain an account of the missionary's life and experiences, 
from his first arrival in the colony, full of hope and buoyancy of youth, till he 
has reached mature age, somewhat broken by toil, narrowed circumstances, and 
domeBtieafflictmns. The topics of his pen are, the character of his parish 
duties and of his parishioners ; the troubles he had in raising money to build 
churches, and in contending with sectarians ; various incidents of a singular, or, 
as Mr. Musgrave is inclined to think, of a ' providentkd ' kind, occurring among the 
rough and simple people by whom a district is first broken up ; with.accounts of 
occasional eonvermons among his flock. The more iHographioal subjects involve 
Ms own adventures on varieus occasions, when travelling about the country, the 
personal difficulties he experienced in household affairs, from the peculiar 
position of ar clergyman, and the backward state of the district ; together with 
some domestic incidents, and a sketch of the campaign against the rebels, when 
he turned out, unarmed^ at the head of his armed parishioners." Spectator, 



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16 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

Vol 17 or PArt 34. 

Sale's Brigade in AflPghanistan. 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE SEIZURE AND DEFENCE OF JELLALABAD. 
BY REV. Q. R. QLEIQ. 

An mccidenta] meeting with the 13th regiment at the sea-bathing quarter of 
Wahner during the autumn of hist year, gave me an opportunity of hearing 
more of the particulars of the Jellalahad siege than had previously been com- 
municated to me. The narrative was full of interest when detailed by actors in 
the scenes which they described ; and this it was which led to the determination 
on my part to place it permanently upon record. The substance of the following 
story is gathei^ chiefly from the manuscript joumab of officers engaged in the 
camoaign. Extract from Preface, 

** Some of our readers may not hare met with the narratiye written by the 
Chaplam of the Forces, <0f the Actions of Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan.' It 
is one of the noblest records of military adventures mat we know. A chapter 
of Xenophon or Froissart is not more agreeable than this brilliant and chividrous 
}<tory : and the deeds of some of the bravest men the world ever saw, are 
recounted with the most simple, but the most picturesque eloquence, by the 
reverend historian.** Morning Chronide, 



Vol 17 or Part 35. 

Letters from Madras; 

OR, FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF LIFE AND MANNERS IN INDIA. 

BY A LADY. 

** A welcome addition to our store of literary entertainment No kind of read- 
ing is more pleasant than the descriptions funiished by accomplished females of 
Ibreign countries. The fiuicy of the writers is so hvely, and their observations 
80 quick, that their pages are like a beautiful panorama, intelligible, changing, 
and novel. The * Letters from Madras,' less poetical than Heber's Journid, 
are in a lighter and gayer strain, but have the same faculty of picturesque 
delineation." BrUaamia* 

** This work will prove a most agreeable travelling or after-dinner companion. 
It is just the book for a railway carriage, or easy-chair. It takes the reader to 
India's burning strand, and familiarises him with the habits and customs of 
India's denizens, without the expense and danger of a sea voyage, or the pangs 
of sea-sickness. We are for the time in India, and not in England, and thus the 
object of the authoress is really accomplished, for she renders us in every way 
iamiliar with the state of society which she describes. A more amusing work 
has certainly never fallen into our hands ." Nottingham Review. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 17 

Vol. 18 OP Part 36—37. 

The wad Sports of the Highlands. 

BY CHARLES ST. JOHN. 

" Mr. St. John's book is very much better than a mere record of wild sports. 
His sketches of the Natural History of the Highlands are highly interesting, and 
abound in descriptions of the most graphic truthfulness. It is long since a 
work has appeared so likely to commend itself to the hearts of field naturalists. 
Mr. St John has had every advantage in making himself acquainted with the 
habits of the animals and birds of the country. His ample leisure has enabled 
him to gratify his early fondness for the study of nature ; and he considers him- 
self now tolerably well acquainted with the domestic economy of most of our 
British feral nature, from the field-mouse and wheatear, which he stalked and 
tnwped in the plains and downs of Wiltshire during his boyhood, to the red deer 
and eagle, whose territory he has invaded in later years, on Ihe mountains of 
Scotland. His present residence is situated in the midst of a district inhabited 
by a great variety of animals and birds, into whose haunts his hunting excur- 
sions constantly take him ; and the habits of the various species which his quick 
eye has detected, he recounts to his readers with a power of description rarely 
equalled. An additional charm about the book arises from the evidently 
unstudied character of its contents. Mr. St. John's words flow fast ; and then, 
too, he paints the scenery of his favourite sport so beautifully, and tells of its 
attractions with such fulness and spirit, that when his journals become familiar 
to naturalists, we shall not be surprised if a visit to the rapid and glorious 
Findhom, is thought not less interesting than a pilgrimage to Selbome." 

Eclectic Review, 



Vol. 19 or Part 38. 

Some Eapid Journeys across the Pampas. 

BY SIR F. B. HEAD, BART. 

^ This is a highly interestmg volume. Many may be aware that the minmg 
speculations in Sie provinces of the Rio de la Plata have turned out unfortunate, 
and that, too, as Sir Francis Head informs us, from ignorance of the character 
of the country. Sir Francis had received the charge of an association, the 
object of which was to work the gold and silver mines of these provinces. In 
pursuance of this task, he crossed and recrossed the Pampas ; and the present 
work contains the rapid observations made in the course of his hasty journey. 
The pictures of that wild country and its savage inhabitants, are most graphic 
and exciting, and of a cast quite novel, and out of the beaten track. It is a 
charming work, both for those who love exciting narrative, and those who wish 
to extend their knowledge of men and things." Edinburgh Weekly Register. 

^* Sir Francis Head is an admirable delineator of the scenery in the vicinity of 
which he was a temporary sojourner. And among the happiest of his delinea- 
tions of external life, we may instance his account of tiie Pampas Indians, the 
aborigmal inhabitants of South America." San, 



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18 MUBRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIKIABY. 

VoL 19 «r Pwt 41. 

The Two Sieges of Vienna by the Turks. 

TRANSLATED BY LORD ELLESMERE 

* Few En^Cihraubn, intilMiUy, are avaze how tenriUe a wocmmf not only 
to Fartfini Int also to Central Earope, were flie inyaaoos of the Tiirks — eTen 
down to the end of the eeventeenth centary, and how great Ae alann and £8- 
treai tiiey q>read over Germany. The present woriL exhibits an interesting 
picture of Hbe two latest assauhs by the Ottoman hordes on flie capital of Anstria, 
of (he snfRBrings and hrareiy of the besieged, and of their final rescue by the 
Taliant John SobieskL Of tbe manner in whkfa the Earl <^ Eflesmere has daa- 
diarged the Tanoos duties of translat<N*, editor^ and anthor, we can speak in 
terms of higji praise. His style is dear, nervoos, r^id : and has tiie raoe merit 
of combining me fireedom and freshness of ong^aal composition, wi& Ae minnte 
accoraej of German sdiolarship. The woiIl is a TaliuAle contribation to €be 
histoiy of an important period." AthencBtmn, 

''TheSiefeeof 'Vleona, by ^e Turks, ftret in the jear 1529, and again-in 1683, 
Icvm two ^ery OKtraor&uury episodes in modem history, nose who hare not 
wad ifaem wUl find them condi>ined, and wrought intoa rery pieaong naRtrtSre, 
partly translated from a German work, and pully drawn from other sources of 
Turlash and PoUsh lustory. Never comd the romance of war he more 
pi c i iafe a<|aclj written ^lan in Ifais little Tohme before us." 

Bdtnburffh WetMf Advatiser, 



Vol 2§ or Parts 39—40. 

Gatherings from Spain. 

CY fUCHARO FOW>. 

Although the original design of this work was merdy to present in a more 
readable ^rpe,and in a farm smted to the library, a series <^ entertaming ex irac te 
from the Hand-Book of Spain, the msibor has neariy re-written the whole in a 
mere popular stj^, and has introduced a Tast quantity of new matter. Prtfaxst, 

^Mr. Ford has shown himself an adept in Uie art of fiteisBry riehmigage. His 
masterly and learned ' Hand-Book of S|kaia ' having been iMind by some who 
loTe to run and read, too small in type^ too grave in siyManoe, he has skkniDed 
its cream, thrown in many wefl-fiavoured and agreeable coDdim^it^ and pse- 
aented Uie result in one compact aod deUghtful volume, efuaUy adapted to urawy 
by an En^i^ fireside or to be useM on the ^amflh highway." JBlaekioo^d. 

'^ We have no donht Ihat the work (EoMdbo^k nf Spam^ k a espial MAsny- 
BO«E — ^bot it is not to be tried by that standard. J^ the extrannm ditqimitimu 
were printad 5y thenutshm, we tkmdd have h^are «e « Jatt-iit^ UbtKBrff-bont; 
emd it %B in this light chiefly that ioe regc^ iL^ Qmurierlf Btm&m. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 19 

Yd. 21 or Parts 42 and 45. 

Sketches of German Life, 

WITH SCENES FROM TBSi WAB OP ETBElWrnON IN GERMANY. 
TRAT^iATEO BY SIR ALEXR. DUFF GORDON, W^T. 

"Tfaisis a Betocficp Awerwiig of more thaa erdmaiy a tt e ati o n . Tfamgbte 
wntor does not tai» a kigii rank aaong the anAersof meiei'ii Ctennany, ittT^rt 
either <»f origmal tiJeDl^ or aoj peodiar <^ana <tf styie as a nanralar, lis isevif^ 
obamisteQtul and tmslinsrilij. He has Kred, teo, ammsig dialai^aidied peapto 
and in stinnng times. His infe, ihe celebnited Rabel, wasadkaowledged as oaa 
of -Ibe IntoUeetHal -fiieeiis of Gcmany : and har ihonghte and opmioBs wete 
eagorljr oomrted by soma ei its most learned and most poffofal imb. It tefla 
us liow ihe wiiter kekl otdloqay with Bidtter, tsok pait is Ifae hattle of Aapem^ 
aod ia«8 raogled in the gresi world of Parisy dwrtly afitar the oMniage of 
Na^leen to Mana-LeuiBa. We mention ^iuse passages somawhtt discfflmeet- 
ecBy, for lliepiirpoae of fihowmg the wide range <^ the hotk.^ Aihmtmim, 

^ This autobiography is not without interest : for Yon Ense is a remarkable 
man, who has mixed a good deal with society and authors, and who conveys 
edurewd and critical obse rv a ti on s in a terse and Urely slyle. 1%e great value of 
tiie book, however, eonenstB in the writer's ol)servaiaons upon public opinion, and 
his semimseenoes of liw ovoitB and men wKli winch he was comiected." 



YoL 22 or Partis 43—44. 

Omoo ; AdYentures in the South Seas. 

BY HERMANN MELVILLE. 

<< We were much puzalei, a few weeks sinee, by a tantalimng and unintelligible 
paragraph, pertinaciously reiterated in the Loodon newq^apess. Its brevity 
equaUed its mystery : it consisted but of five wordsy the first and last in imposing 
majuscules. Thus it ran : — 

* OMOO : By the Author of TYPEE.* 

HaviE^ but an indiffeTeat opinion of books u^iered into existoaee by sudi dissv 
lataniral maaoBuvree, we thovg^ no more of * Omoo ' ui^, musing ibe other 
day aver our matutinal hyson, the volume itself wae kid bef<a« us, and we sud- 
denfy found ourselves in the entertaining society of MarqfMsan MehriHe, the 
phoenix of modem voyagers, i^rung, it would seem, £rom the miagM aediea of 
Captain Cook and Robinson Crusoe. The title is borroirad Cram &a dialect of 
the Marquesas, and aigoifios a rov^ : the book is asoeUeBty quits first-rate.*' 

JSlachwood 

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20 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

YoL 23 or Parts 46— 47. 

The True Story of the Battle of Waterloo. 

FROM PUBLIC AND AUTHENTIC SOURCES. 
BY REV. Q. R. QLEIQ. 
^'The book is a Tery complete, pamstaldiig, weU-arranged, and interesting 
narratiyey embracing aU the collateral points of tiie subject as well as its main 
features. The arrangement, indeed, is its first excellence. There is a brief and 
rapid yiew of the state of Europe after the first downfall of Napoleon, and an 
ttpaJlj condensed account of hu evasion from Elba and march to Paris. The 
preHminanr preparations for the campaign on each side are then described ; the 
battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras introduce the crowning triumph of Waterloo ; 
and the contemporary march of Blucher and the attack of Grouchy upon 
Thiefanan at Wavre, fall into their proper places in point of time, and support 
the main story without interfering with it. The subsequent retreat of Grouchy, 
tiie entrance into France, the fimil abdication of Napoleon, and the conyention 
of Paris complete tiie narrative. More striking accounts of Waterioo, and per- 
haps of the other battles, have appeared, boMuse the author's fulness occa- 
sionally runs into over-detail on mere military matters ; but we have never met 
with so complete and well-arranged a view of the Story of the Hundred Days." 

Spectator. 

tt This seems to us, on the whole, the best connected narrative that we have 
seen of this world-famous battle. It is the most intelligible, and also, we should 
say, the most authentic. It is written in a lingularlv calm and impartial spirit ; 
there is no straining after romantic adventure or mdividual exploit ; and the 
result is a story of surpassing interest, in even the most popular sense of that 
word, conveyed with not a lime of the weight and judicial emphasis of history. 
Mr. Gleig writes excellent English. His style is dear and lively, yet impressive.** 

Exanmer. 

VoL 24 or Part 48. 

A Voyage up the River Amazon, 

INCLUDING A RESIDENCE AT PARA. 

BY W. H. EDWARDS. 

*< Full of novelty ; we can hardly open a page which has not its picture for 
the general observer, and its product for those, who like Sir Joseph Banks, look 
on the earth as one vast museum." Athencpum, 

^ This work is valuable for the information it gives on this very little known 
part of the world. It is likelv to excite many adventurous young men to 
explore the Amazon. Variety for our travellers is now wanted, and a voyage 
op ti^e Amazon, going back on the traces of Orellana, and crossing to the Pacific, 
may probably b^me, ere long, as familiar to our countrymen as a voyage up 
the Rhine or the Nile." Economitt. 

^ The Voyage of the Amazon cannot fail to be exceedingly popular, since it 
abounds with adventure, narratives of danger and deliverance, of wild beasts 
and wilder men. Its natural history alone would render any volume highly 
valuable and justly popular. We pajrticularly commend it to Young People as 
one of extraordinary interest." Christian Witness, 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 21 

Vol. 24 or Part 49. 

The Wayside Cross ; 

OK, THE BAID OP GOMEZ. A TALE OP THE CABLIST WAR. 

BY CAPT. E. A. MILMAN. 

This little tale is intended to depict the utter lawlessness and consequent 
misery of a naturally beautiful and gay country, such as Andalucia, under the 
bloodstained horrors of an unnatund civil war, and the poor control of a 
wretched, pusillanimous government (if indeed it can be so called). Crime 
produces crime, bloodshed familiarises men to murder, until man's life becomes 
of no more value than the reptile's which is crushed beneath the feet. And 
such was Spain then : and is it better now 1 It must not be supposed that this 
is altogether a work of fiction. Most of the characters, scenes, and incidents, 
happened either whilst I was at Gibraltar, or came under my personal experience 
whilst travelling in the southern part of Andalucia ; and the descriptions are 
taken from nature. Some of my readers may perhaps recognise in Lope de la 
Vega the well-known contrabandista Frascito Martinez, of Xuneneh. I can see 
him now, splendidly dressed^in theMajo costume, the best-looking, the proudest, 
the very personification of the haughty Spaniard, crossing with measured steps 
the crowded bull-ring of that an^ar and romantic city of the sierras, the 
indescribable yet lovely Ronda. Fnym the Preface* 



Vol. 25 or Part 60. 

The Manners and Customs of India. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ANECDOTES. 

BY REV. CHARLES ACLAND. 

^ Written in an easy unaffected style : and the sketches which it gives of 
European life and manners under an Eastern sun must uiterest all who have 
friends in India, and who would like to know how they pass their days.** 

The I7icologi(m. 

^This is a series of letters written by a clergyman to his children. Mr. 
Acland went out to India as a chaplain on the establishment, leaving the younger 
members of his family iu England. His career was but brief. He soon fell a 
victim to the climate — assisted, we are afraid it must be added, by his own 
imprudence. He appears to have been a man of an amiable temperament — all 
things to all men ; easy and afiable ; hospitable and courteous ; not averse to 
society ; and, for a clergyman, immoderately addicted to sporting. They who 
have never visited India may derive from Mr. Acland*s letters some idea of l&e 
manner in which their expatriated brethren spend their lives ; and they who 
have visited the land of the sun may, at all events, smile at the intense griffinism 
of the < padre.' The very triviality of some of the matters discoursed upon 
gives a touch of novelty to the book ; for Mr. Adand, writing to his children, 
tells them a number of things which graver men writing for the public press 
consider beneath their notice." AUas, 



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22 MURRAY'S HOME AND CXNLONIAL LIBRARY. 

Y«L 25 er Pact 5L 

The British Army at Washington & New Orleans, 

BY REV. a R. QLEIQ. 

<* This graphic narratife ia ike proiactton of «oe who serred at the capture 
of Washington and at the attack upon New Orleans, and who made at the time 
m emor a nda of tiio ^lef incidents attending tiiese e nt erpg iac s ; k is, tlierefire, 
ilutfiM in its details, and deserving to be received as an anitentie history of 
Hiese operations. Sobm serere eriticMns are p ass ed upon tiie conduct of these 
oaip editions, particnlarly upon that Erected against New Otieaas^ and several 
awgg est iens are given tint may be usefel in fiitare wars with Ifte Umted States 
of America ; these we merely refer to, leaving Hum lor the consideration of 
mUkatiy men and aotiKnitieSk'' Morning Fast, 

* In this Sttle Tolume, the Chaphun-General has presented the pubHc with, 
some reodlections of his experience at a period when uie country had the b^iefit 
of his services in a less peaceful vocation than that which he now professes, and 
the reader may be occasionally, perhaps, indined to smile at the colours with 
vidiich the old spirit of the soldier has insennUy tinged the narratiye of tibe 
dorgymaa. It is, however, vezy fortunate that Mr. Gldg betook himself to 
this task, for the particular campaign wfaidi he describes, partly from its 
unpopular result, and partly from being ecfipsed by greater events^ has been 
himerto but yery imperfectly known, although its history is replete with 
salutary instruction, and with tiiose peculiar warnings which should be the more 
carefully heeded that they are, happily, so seldom given." Times, 



YoL2S or Bffts ^-58. 

Mexico and the Rocky Mountains. 

BY QEORQE F. RUXTON. 

<^ A capital book, alike attractive for its na r rati ve of travel wi& ite hardsNps 
and incidents, for its pictures of scenery and society, for the direct inforrastieii 
it imparts as to Mexico, and the incidental glimpses it gives us of the Americans 
and tiieir armies in Mexioo." j^pccfotor. 

** What the Aol&or's errand VFas is these remarkable regioBS, or whai talkBoaai 
be proeored to insure his sale paooago wh^Jwr he was Mr. Murray's * own 
oorrespendent'— -whedier he reaUy disdnrged any political duty, or wbctter 
be merely seleeted this peciUiar route lor a summer tnp^we cannot pretend to 
say. On critical oeeanoBS be produces passpwts and (»rtatde#90«nc2a<2, 11^^ 
create as reyerential a coastemation as Paul Jones's commission was to have 
done if ever he had dispbyed it Codeed hats are doffed at tiie si^t of them» 
alcaldes become vprigl^ preiectB civil, and generals polite ; but as to the 
purport, source, or charaetor of Aese aaigic doouBMiits, we are left entirely ia 
the dark. This, however, is ef no consequence. The Author did, beyond aB. 
qoestioD, make hw way firora Yera Craz to Santa F^ and his sketchssof what 
be saw on the road are as deariy ftHthfol as they are ui^eniably amusing. A 
book with less nonsense has seldom been written.'^ Timm^ 



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MURRAY'S HOME ANI> COLONIAL LIBRARY. 23 

VoL 27 or Parte 54— 55. 

Portogaly Gallicia, & the Basque Provinces. 

FROM NOTES MADE DURING A JOURNEY TO THOSE COUNTRIES. 

BY THE LATE LORD CARNARVON. 

« This is a Te»y pemarkabte work. It is not only a graphic description of the 
&ce of the eomitrj, and an impartial aanA sagacious aceonnt of the moral and 
political condition of Spain and Portugal ; but it relates aiao a series of personal 
adventures and perfls, very unosual in modem Europe ; and which, while tiiey 
do honooF to the spirit of him ^o sought information at such risks, exhibit 
more of the real state of ihe Iberian Peninsula tiian cotdd have been obtained 
by a less ardent and less intrepid inquirer. The author is the Eari of Camarron, 
who seems to ha^^e combined the mod^m thirst for informartion with Ihe 
adveBturoua spirit of the ancient Herberts, and who has the additional quality of 
being a vez^ elegant and amusing wnteasJ* Qnuarterl^Bmew* 



Vol. 28 or Parts 56—57. 

Life of Robert, The Great Lord Clive. 

BY REV. G. R. QLEIG. 

^ While enough is told of the Company, and the state of Indian wars and 
politics before Clive culminated, to make his position and exploits clearly under- 
stood, history is never permitted to encroach upon biography ; for in Htxe founda- 
tion of our Indian empire CKve is the history itself, much more than was even 
the Conqueror in the Korman invasion. The facts of the life, and even the 
anecdotes, are accompanied by a spmt ef oommentory which preserves them 
from triteness even when weU known : the narrative is clear, sustained, and 
solid ; the- estimate of Clive is in the main just, though rather severe, if not a 
little derogatory." Spectator. 

** Mr. Gleig has shown most praiseworHiy impartiality in discnsnng CKve's 
merits. He has kept none of his faults out of view, nor attempted to defend 
them at the expense of right and justice. He has also pointed out the great 
qualities which Clive possessed ; but he has scarcely given him his due rank as 
an historical character. As regards the romantic daring of his enterprises, he 
falls little short of Cortes and Pizarro. In point of real greatness, and compre- 
henmveness of views, he stands far before them ; and it must be remembd^ed, 
in comparing his conquests with those of others, that he was trammelled by 
official superiors at a (^stance, who could neither enter into his plans, nor under- 
stand his motives, while the Spanish conquerors pursued their bloody f^ath 
witiiout fear either of God or man." Quardicm. 



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24 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

VoL29orP*rt58. 

Recollections of Bush Life in Australia, 

DURING A RESIDENCE OF EIGHT YEARS IN THE INTERIQR. 

BY H. W. HAYGARTH. 

^ Lively, graphic, descriptiye of man, animals, nature, and society, such as 
society there is ; and with sufficient incident to animate the narrative, it pos- 
sesses the interest of romantic fiction. Moreover, it conveys more useful 
information to an intending settler than tables upon tables of statistics, or pages 
of historical and geographical compilation, that will never affect him one jot, or 
general gazetteer-like accounts of profits and prospects, that from some ulterior 
purpose or sheer incompleteness are likely to mislead him to his loss." Spectator* 

^ The library of Australia has recentiy received so many and various accessions, 
and the subjects of colonial life and policy have so frequentiy enjoyed our 
attrition during the last few months, that we should not have been tempted to 
return to the topic by any less spirited and agreeable work than the one before 
us. Mr. Haygurth has had some vears* experience of Australian life, and writes 
with a thorough comprehension of nis subject His work is not perfectly regular 
in its form — but this the general reader will find a great advantage. It has 
neither the shape of a treatise nor that of a journal ; but is something between 
them — combining the compact information of the firsi^ with the readable interest 
of the second.'* AihenoBum, 



VoL 29 or Part 59. 

Adventures on the Koad to Paris during the 
Campaigns of 181S-14. 

BY HENRY STEFFENS. 

^The wish to place within the reach of English readers some interesting 
remarks on the state of feeling in Crermany at tiie time of Napoleon's occupation 
of the country, as well as some graphic details of the war of liberation, has been 
the chief inducement to select passages from the life of Henry Steffens. The 
substance is culled from the memoirs published, in Breslau, in 1844." Preface, 

^ Compressed from voluminous German publications, this episode paints a 
Ions road, and one, certainly, not without some memorable turnings. It begins 
wita the birth, parentage, and education of Steffens, who became a distinguished 
professor and poet, and who took a striking part in the revolution of Germany, 
which sealed the fate of Napoleon at the battie of Leipsic, and the consequent 
march to, and capture of, Paris. Well as the plan of this cheap series has been 
carried out, we have not met with one more original in its features, or more 
amusing in its style and conduct, than this.** Literary Qazette* 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 25 

Vol 30 or Parts 60—61. 

Tales of a Traveller. 

BY WASHINGTON IRVING. 

^ It is with great pleasure we torn to the tale of Buckthome, whose adven- 
tores with those of Ms friends occupy the second division of the tales. From 
the evidence of this tale, which abounds in point and incident, it seems probable 
to us that Mr. Irving might, as a novelist, prove no contemptible rival to Gold- 
smith, whose turn of mind he very much inherits, and of whose style he 
particularly reminds us. Like him, too, he possesses tiie art of setting ludicrous 
perplexities in the most irresistible point of view, and, we think, eqiuus him in 
the variety, if not in the force, of his humour. The scenes in the cathedral 
town form a strong contrast to the broad farce of the strolling company, and 
the sorrows of the poor ex-columbine ; while the respective descriptions of the 
principal tragedian, and Iron John the miser's servant, are in as different taste 
from each oSier, as the broad flowing freedom of Rowlandson and the dark, 
worm-eaten, characteristic touches of Quintin Matsys." Quarterly Rmew. 



Vol. 31 or Parts 62—63. 

Short Lives of the British Poets, 

WITH AN ESSAY ON ENGLISH POETKT. 

BY THOMAS CAMPBELL 

" This work is a reprint from * Campbell's Specimens of the British Poets ' — 
the specimens being omitted, so as to condense wi^n the compass of 436 pages 
the biographical notices and preliminary essays given in that voluminous and 
standard publication. The notion of such a condensation is, to say the very 
least of it, felicitous, conveying, as the volume does, in one comprehensive glance, 
a complete conception of the rise, the advance, and the fluctuations of English 
poetry since the days of Gower and Chaucer down to the commencement of the 
present century, and the appearance of the contemporaries of the essayist. To 
quote the punning adaptation of a well-known line, the retrospect of Campbell 
turns alternately 

' From Gray to Gay, from Little to Shakspere.' 

Occasionally, it is true, the remarks of the illustrious poet are singularly super- 
ficial, though, when the extraordinary scope of his undertaking is taken into 
account, such an incidental result is by no means surprising. For this delightful 
volume we are again indebted to the critical niceness of selection which has 
hitherto characterised * Murray's Home and Colonial Library ; * and which is a 
substantial guarantee for the worth and excellence of its continuation." Sun. 



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2(r MUEBAVS HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

Vol. 32 or Parts 64^65. 

Historical Essays, 



SELECTED FBOU riJUIIllHOUg TO T9B Ql^ytTERLY BEYIEW. 
BY LORD MAHON. 

JOAN OF ABC. I FREDERICK THE SECOMS. 

MAKY QUEEM OF SCOTS. ME. PITT AND MIKE OF KUTLAND. 

MABQUIS OF HONTBOSE. | THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 

^ A Tilnable addition to the Albemarie-street isme of chei^ Uteratnre for all 
elaases, consisting of articles from the ' Qoarterly Review/ written' by the noble 
lord whose name as a historian will gyre % value to their collection in thia 
shape. ** Guardiain, 

^ The reader ndio has abeady read in the * Qnarteri j Review* ihe agreeaUe 
articles of Lord Blahon on Joan of Arc, Mary Queen of Scota, Montrose^ 
Frederick the Second, and Pitt's Irish Correspondence with the Duke of 
Rutland, may here renew his acquaintance in a more convenient form ; while 
those who have yet to make it, have an instructive entertainment to come/* 

SpectcUor. 



Vol S3 or Part 66. 

Stokers & Pokers — ^Highways & Dryways ; 

OR, THE NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY, TKE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, 
AND THE BRITANNIA AND CONWAY TUBULAR BBIDGES. 

BY THE AUTHOR OF "BUBBLES." 

^ A r^nblicatioa of a reoent dashing artide in the * Qnwteriy,' with ocea- 
rional modification and contiderable addUiont by ite tmlhor. Sir Francis Head. 
It is a niecial oontribvtien, we presume, to the popular Railwiaj^Statioa literature 
of the day, aad is not to be drawn into a preeedent for rinular vepnblioations 
firam the pages of the great review. It is a very clever,n^d, graphic, and 
effective series of fetches desoi^ttive <^ the diffieulties attendast on the con- 
struction, maintenance, and woriimg of a great railway, witb illustraiionB from 
such scenes as may be witnessed £diy on the line. We know nothing more 
wonderful than the wonders that people get so accustomed to as never to 
notice at all. This little book will add * a precious seeing to the eye ' of divers 
railway travellers who at present see nothing, and therefore we heartily approve 
of its re-appearance in this form, and anticipate an enormous sale for it at the 
Paternoster Rows of the North- Western, and every other Wea*em, for it 
applies almost equally to all the lines. The most prominent and us^il adiitioa 
to it is an appendix of the managemmt rules and regulations in fxacQ upon the 
North- Western, wilii iUustrations of the various signals and their meamng.^ 

SaocBminer. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 27 

VoL S3 or Part 67. 

Adventures in the Lybiimi Desert. 

aV BAYLE ST. JOHN, 

^ Mr. St John and his companions are the second party ef Englishmen who 
have ever penetrated 00 far in this direction into the sandy wastes of AMca. 
Europeans are very little acquainted with the route, and all our readers will 
not, perhaps, be eren aware that the modem Siwah is identical with the more 
famous Oasis of Ammon — a name of note and mysterious interest in the ancient 
world. The enterprise must have needed no little nerve and hardihood to plan 
and carry into execution, and it seems to have been undertaken more for its 
own sake, and from a desire of encountering and overcoming the difficulties that 
it presented, than for any further object to be obtained onarrivaL Mr. St. John 
is no antiquanan, and has little knowledge of architecture, but he is a man of 
observation and f(md of travelling." Gtuirddcm* 

** The difficulties of the journey across the desert are described in a most 
picturesque and agreeable manner ; and those who purpose to follow the track 
of the author through the almost unknown regions he traversed, will find this 
book a most invaluable guide/' Mommg Herald. 

<c The style of this volume is easy, polished, and elegant, and its descriptions 
full of freshness and poetry. There is no redundancy. Every word used is 
introduced for a special purpose ; and the reader when arrived at the end, 
wishes it were twice as long. This is praLse which can be bestowed on very few 
books indeed, b«t the < Adventures in the libyan Desert' highhr deserve iV* 

Tait^s MagazvM, 



VoL 34 or Farts 68--69. 

A Residence at Sierra Leone. 

DESCRIBED FBOM A JOURNAL KEPT ON THE SPOT, AND FROM LETTERS 
WRITTEN TO FRIENDS AT HOME. 

BY A LADY. EDITED BY MRS. NORTON. 

^A most animated and sprightly picture of the state of society at Sierra 
Leone, the point and devemess of which is, we apprehend, to be placed to the 
credit of the tallented editor, fully as much as to that of the original writer of the 
letters. The facility of recognising any portraiture of European men and things 
in a settlement in which there are so few white men, has restnuned the author 
of the letters from dwelling upon that part of her subject, and she has accord- 
ingly confined herself to an account of life ameng the AfricMis. The picture is 
not as forbidding as the ill odour in which Sierra Leone is held might lead cme 
to anticipate, though probably much of what is here related, was as annoying to 
experience as it is amusing to read. For a chatty book of foreign lands and 
outlandish manners, we have rarely known these two numbers equalled, even 
among the many entertaining books of which Mr. Murray's ^ Home and Colonial 
LU)nry ' is con^NMsed. " John Bull. 



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28 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 

Vol. 35 or Parts 70— 71. 

Life of Sir Thomas Munro. 

BY REV. Q. R. QLEIQ. 

^ Mr. Cuuiing obsenred in Parliament— < that the population which he (Sir 
Tkomoi Munro) subjugated by arms, he managed with such address, equity, and 
wisdom, that he estabUiBhed an empire over their hearts and feeHngs.' 
< Europe never produced a more accomplished statesman, nor Indut, so fertile in 
heroes, a more skilful soldier.* The copious and highly interesting contents of 
Mr. Gleig's work supply us with the grounds of this splendid testimony. His 
private correspondence will be read with pleasure and instruction, as exhibiting 
the union of hi^ moral worth with intellectual gifts of no ordinary stamp. It 
is no small honour to his memory, that he was the friend and correspondent of 
the Great Captain ; and the number of letters addressed to him by Colonel 
Wellesley, constitute a feature of cardinal interest among the contents of the 
volume." Quarterly Review. 



Vol. 36 or Parts 72—74. 

Memoirs of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. 

WITH SELECTIONS FROM HIS CORBESPONDENCE. 
BY CHARLES BUXTON. 

^ One of the most thoroughly well-written pieces of biography that has issued 
from the modem press." Evangdkal Magazine. 

^ This book has raised our estimate of Sir Fowell Buxton's talents, and intro- 
duced us to an acquaintance with graces of character which we might not have 
been likely to infer from the niain circumstances of his public life. It affords 
some very curious pictures of manners, — and, let us add, an example of discre- 
tion and good taste in one of the most difficult of Uterary tasks. The Editor 
has been contented to rely as far as possible on the correspondence and diaries 
in his possession, and the anecdotes furnished by a few elder friends : — but both 
classes of material well deserved in this case the advantage of a neat setting, 
and have rec^ved it" Quarterly Review. 

** Mr. Charles Buxton has presented to the world all that he deemed to be 
necessary for the elucidation of his father's character in one goodly volume, 
and we are right glad to congratulate him both on the spirit in which his work 
was conceived, and the manner in which it has been executed. The editor's 
pious labours have been the production of a mirror wherein we may recognise 
the vera effigies, both intellectual and physical, of one who for many years 
occupied a most exalted niche in the Leguslature of this country." 

Morning Chronicle. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 29 

VoL 37.or Parte 75—76. 

Oliver Goldsmith; a Biography. 

BY WASHINGTON IRVING. 

The present yolome is a republication of a former Biographical Sketch of 
Goldsmith by the same author^ who says in his Preface — 

I have again taken up the subject, and gone into it with more fulness than 
formerly, omitting none of the facte which I considered illustrative of the life 
and character of the poet, and giving them in as graphic a style as I could 
command. 

" For popular readers this will be the Life of Goldsmith. Few writers are 
more penetrated with the spirit of Goldsmith than Washmgton Irving ; for his 
own style was founded upon that of the gifted Irishman. HIb own genius was 
akin to Goldsmith. * * We think Mr. Irving exceedingly happy in bringing 
out the precise character of the stories with which any life of Goldsmith must 
of necessity be well sprinkled." Spectator. 

" Mr. Washington Irving has presented an attractive subject in an attractive 
form ; he never employed more worthily the graces of his style. The picture of 
Goldsmith is most distinct and individual." Guardian, 



Also, Uniform with Murray's Home and Colonial Library^ 

Prince Charlie; 

OR, THE HISTORY OP THE REBELLION OP PORTY-FIVE. 
BY LORD MAHON. 

REPRINTED FROM THE SECOND EDITION OF LORD MAHON's BISTORT OF ENGLAND. 

Humboldt's Cosmos ; and Aspects of Nature. 

TRANSLATED BY COLONEL AND MRS. SABINE 

<<Here we have the < authorised editions* transited by Mrs. Sabine, at the 
wish of the author, who has, moreover, read a great portion of the proof- 
sheets, the revision being completed by the Chevalier Bunsen." Spectator, 

''The only English translations which are recognised as authentic by ^ the 
distinguished author. We commend them to the notice of all our readers." 

Medical Cfasette, 



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80 MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL UB&ART. 

OmNIONS OF THC PRESS: 

^ Mr. Miirr»y*fl meritorioiu series." Times, 

**We tnisi.tbe eniopciit by which Mr. liaiB^V>pit to flopply standard 

works at a cheap rate, and to giv« effect to the act for snppressiDg pirated 

editions of our aothors, will meet with the enooomfiBient to which the design 

and the execution are emineotlj entitled.^ Momvng Chnmide, 

** A saries of cstaUiriied woAm iiwiiif— iiil lor TMicty — d ehifuss.** 

''Mr. Mnrmj's project of suppling Statndard Litemtnre at a price whidi 
renders it accessible to persons of lunited means, at home and in the Odonies, 
has our warm approral** Oxford Herald. 

« This singnkrlj attractive and hi^y popular work.^ Morning Herald, 

« This Tahiahle and entertaining library. Erery arfiele wfaidi has yet 
HBpeared in it is r epl ets with interest, and the quantity of matter soppHed for 
Htdf-Ok-Crown must secmns fcr it a very extended sale^ both at home and abroad.* 

Ecamgdiad Magazifiu. 

<< Mr. Murray's dieap and well-conducted Colonial Libraxy." Examiner, 

** The undertaking does honour to the enterprise and Uberaliir of the Publisher. 
Mr. Murrav holds many valuable copyright works, whidli it will bo a great public 
benefit to plaee within reach of the milliona." Patriot, 

« The work does credit to the originater.** Ch ru tim Jgrnusttramu la . 

^ The critical nioeness of selection which has characterised Murray's Home 
and Colonial Library." Sun, 

** The plan of this cheap series has been well carried out"* Literary Gazette, 

^ Whether this series— cheap and valuable as it promises to be—will meet 
with a proper reception from our colonial brethren, is to our mind somewhat 
doubtful; tfaatitwiEw«Bmandaverylargeoircn1atieBintfiiseonntrywe cannot 
but anticipate. There have been numerous reprints of standard works issued in 
connection with original publications, at a very low rate ; but none of these 
attempts to provide a chem first-rate literatnre for the multitude can vie with 
the present undertaking of Mr. Murray." Pictorial Times, 

^ That really excellent serial Murray's C<donial and Home Library." 

Naval afod Military Gazette, 

^ Mr. Murray boMs on his way in a manner for which the public were not 
unprepared. Volume succeeds to volume, and work to work, most of them 
instructive, all of them highly interesting, and sold at a price so insignificant as 
to brinr them within the eaigr reatib of even the lowest grade of the middle 
classes." Christian Witness, 

** The many e mtortaimn g boofai of which Mr. Mvray^ lifamyis composed." 

John Bull, 

^ This most agreeable and judicious series is progres si ng with great success. 
Indeed, the variety, value, and nature of the books presented by Mr. Murray 
are sndi as to ensare tiie command of the great circulation which, we under- 
stand, they have obtained.** DMui BverUng Post, 

^ Bfr. Murray's most useful and excellent periodicaL** BdPe Weekly Mttsenger. 

« This most agreeable and judicious series." Dvblin Evening Post. 



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MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 31 



OPINIONS OP THE PRESS. — Contiuwd, 

*^ On recurring to the mere catalogue of the Tolames comprised in the n(yme 
and. Colonial Library, we are reminded very forcibly of the critical adroitness 
with which the differ^it productions have beet selected, and of the felicitous 
contrasts produced by the mere sequence of their publication. In each of the 
various departments of literary excellence we have obtained specimens worthy 
of preservation upon the bookshelves of the most fastidious bibliographers — 
effusions which, in numerous instances, may be regarded as masterpieces. 
Biogra|>]ue8, tn^rels, and essays^ vidssitudeB of battle, aad sports en the heather, 
adTentoras among the wilds of nature, and aming the hauis of meek and 
beautiful barbarians, stories for the fireside, and narratives amongst the parterres 
and quincimxea of science have severally and in succession fallen to t^e lot of 
the subscribers — leading them an agreeable pilgrimage over the surface of both 
hemispheres, without requiring them to withdraw their wadded slippers 
from the ottoman, or to move their heads from the cushions of faiUeuU, 
One while we have followed Heber to the Indies, at another Malcolm 
into Persia ; we have been with Lewis among the Western Islands, with 
Hay in Morocco, with Borrow in Spain, with Head in the Pampas, with 
Ford in Andalusia, with Acland in Hindostan, with Melville in the Mar- 
quesas, with Ruxton in Mexico, with Carnarvon in Gallicia ; and elsewhere 
vriih Steffsns, and Irby and Mangles, touching alternately on the shores 
of the Baltic, or on those of Australia, penetrating the deserts of Algeria 
and the umbrageous wilds of Paraguay, roving through the streets of Madras or 
floating on the waters of the Amazon. We have pored with the greediest 
curiosity 'over the imaginative narratives of the * Amber Witch,' of * Brace- 
bridge Hall,' of the < Tales of a Traveller,' and of tkose of the 'Livcnnans.' 
We have listened to the anecdotes of glory and honour associated with the siege 
of Gibraltar, or Ihe battie of Waterloo, or the Turkish bombardment of Vienna. 
We have gone on the voyage of the Naturalist with Darwin, and devoured the 
enthralling < Memoirs of FaSier Bipa.' Lord Mahon has recounted to us the 
life of the Great C(»ide,and Gleig, iAxe history of Hie Ghreat CUve. We have 
perused also with proportionate interest the allusions made elsewhere to the 
existenee and the ehaeacters of Dn^of Bunyan, and of Cromwell. Beyond 
this, it must be borne in recollection, that amongst the herd of writers who 
flood the reading public with the torrent of their lucubrations, the Heme and 
Colonial Library of Mr. Murray has given to the world two authors of peculiar 
originality, who, writing in their different ways, are altogether inimitable. We 
allude to Herman Melville, the American saUor, and to Lieutenant Greorge 
Frederick Ruxton, the late lamented traveller through the Prairies and Savan- 
nahs of the < Far West.' From the pen of the latter young and enterprising 
Englishman, Mr. Murray has presented to his subscribers the admirable 
chapters called ^ Adventures in Mexico' — chapters fraught with entertainment 
from the fresh and exhilarating manner with which every syllable is indited. 
From the hand of the former have emanated those two remarkable books 
* Typee ' and * Omoo ' — pearls of description ravished from the unknown 
depliis of the Southern Ocean. Than * Typee ' there is scarcely a work of 
more exquisite fascination in the whole range of travels written since the days 
of Marco Polo. It is one of those bewitching volumes which, once read, haunt 
the imagination throughout life, like the recollection of Robinson Crusoe on the 
island of Juan Fernandez, or of Paul and Virginia on that of the Mauritius." 

From the Swi, 



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MURRAY'S HOME & COLONIAL LIBRARY 
COMPLETE. 



In concluding the " Home and Colonial Library," Mr. Murray 
begs to announce that in consideration of the large circulation of 
that series, and the continued demand for back numbers, he is con- 
vinced that there is an unabated desire on the part of the public for 
reading, at once cheap, popular, and instructiTe ; he is therefore 
preparing speedily to put forth a New Library, which, though equally 
portable, shall be even more elegant in typography than the last, 
and shall surpass, or at least maintain, its literary value and 
general attraction. 



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